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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 494599 matches for " Kürster M. "
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The generalised Lomb-Scargle periodogram. A new formalism for the floating-mean and Keplerian periodograms
M. Zechmeister,M. Kürster
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:200811296
Abstract: The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a common tool in the frequency analysis of unequally spaced data equivalent to least-squares fitting of sine waves. We give an analytic solution for the generalisation to a full sine wave fit, including an offset and weights ($\chi^{2}$ fitting). Compared to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, the generalisation is superior as it provides more accurate frequencies, is less susceptible to aliasing, and gives a much better determination of the spectral intensity. Only a few modifications are required for the computation and the computational effort is similar. Our approach brings together several related methods that can be found in the literature, viz. the date-compensated discrete Fourier transform, the floating-mean periodogram, and the "spectral significance" estimator used in the SigSpec program, for which we point out some equivalences. Furthermore, we present an algorithm that implements this generalisation for the evaluation of the Keplerian periodogram that searches for the period of the best-fitting Keplerian orbit to radial velocity data. The systematic and non-random algorithm is capable of detecting eccentric orbits, which is demonstrated by two examples and can be a useful tool in searches for the orbital periods of exoplanets.
Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry*
Meyer E.,Kürster M.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20111604005
Abstract: From radial velocity (RV) detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star). Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO) plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems.
The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES. A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs
M. Zechmeister,M. Kürster,M. Endl
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912479
Abstract: We present radial velocity (RV) measurements of our sample of 40 M dwarfs from our planet search programme with VLT+UVES begun in 2000. Although with our RV precision down to 2 - 2.5 m/s and timebase line of up to 7 years, we are capable of finding planets of a few Earth masses in the close-in habitable zones of M dwarfs, there is no detection of a planetary companion. To demonstrate this we present mass detection limits allowing us to exclude Jupiter-mass planets up to 1 AU for most of our sample stars. We identified 6 M dwarfs that host a brown dwarf or low-mass stellar companion. With the exception of these, all other sample stars show low RV variability with an rms < 20 m/s. Some high proper motion stars exhibit a linear RV trend consistent with their secular acceleration. Furthermore, we examine our data sets for a possible correlation between RVs and stellar activity as seen in variations of the Halpha line strength. For Barnard's star we found a significant anticorrelation, but most of the sample stars do not show such a correlation.
A weather dependent approach to estimate the annual course of vegetation parameters for water balance simulations on the meso- and macroscale
K. F rster, M. Gelleszun,G. Meon
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO) , 2012,
Abstract: In order to simulate long-term water balances hydrologic models have to be parameterized for several types of vegetation. Furthermore, a seasonal dependence of vegetation parameters has to be accomplished for a successful application. Many approaches neglect inter-annual variability and shifts due to climate change. In this paper a more comprehensive approach from literature was evaluated and applied to long-term water balance simulations, which incorporates temperature, humidity and maximum bright sunshine hours per day to calculate a growing season index (GSI). A validation of this threshold-related approach is carried out by comparisons with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and observations from the phenological network in the state of Lower Saxony. The annual courses of GSI and NDVI show a good agreement for numerous sites. A comparison with long-term observations of leaf onset and offset taken from the phenological network also revealed a good model performance. The observed trends indicating a shift toward an earlier leaf onset of 3 days per decade in the lowlands were reproduced very well. The GSI approach was implemented in the hydrologic model Panta Rhei. For the common vegetation parameters like leaf area index, vegetated fraction, albedo and the vegetation height a minimum value and a maximum value were defined for each land surface class. These parameters were scaled with the computed GSI for every time step to obtain a seasonal course for each parameter. Two simulations were carried out each for the current climate and for future climate scenarios. The first run was parameterized with a static annual course of vegetation parameters. The second run incorporates the new GSI approach. For the current climate both models produced comparable results regarding the water balance. Although there are no significant changes in modeled mean annual evapotranspiration and runoff depth in climate change scenarios, mean monthly values of these water balance components are shifted toward a lower runoff in spring and higher values during the winter months.
Jupiter analogues and planets of active stars
Kürster M.,Zechmeister M.,Endl M.,Lo Curto G.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20134705005
Abstract: Combined results are now available from a 15 year long search for Jupiter analogues around solar-type stars using the ESO CAT + CES, ESO 3.6 m + CES, and ESO 3.6 m + HARPS instruments. They comprise planet (co-)discoveries (ι Hor and HR 506) and confirmations (three planets in HR 3259) as well as non-confirmations of planets (HR 4523 and Eri) announced elsewhere. A long-term trend in Ind found by our survey is probably attributable to a Jovian planet with a period >30 yr, but we cannot fully exclude stellar activity effects as the cause. A 3.8 year periodic variation in HR 8323 can be attributed to stellar activity.
A spectral differential characterization of low-mass companions
Kostogryz N.,Kürster M.,Yakobchuk T.,Lyubchik Y.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20134713003
Abstract: We present a new approach with which the dynamical mass of low-mass companions around cool stars can be found. In order to discover companions to late-type stars the stellar spectrum is removed. For this we substract two spectra obtained at different orbital phases from each other in order to discover the companion spectrum in the difference spectrum in which the companion lines appear twice (positive and negative signal). The resulting radial velocity difference of these two signals provides the true mass of the companion. For our test case GJ1046, an M2V dwarf with a low-mass companion that most likely is a brown dwarf we select the CO line region in the K-band. We show that the dynamical mass of a faint companion to an M dwarf can be determined using our spectral differential technique. Only if the companion rotates rapidly and has a small radial velocity amplitude due to a high mass, does blending occur for all lines so that our approach fails. In addition to determining the companion mass, we restore the single companion spectrum from the difference spectrum using singular value decomposition.
A search for star-planet interactions in chromospheric lines
L. F. Lenz,A. Reiners,M. Kürster
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Massive planets in very close orbits around their central stars can induce so-called star-planet interactions (SPI), which may be of magnetic or gravitational nature. In both cases, SPI can potentially cause recurring chromospheric emission on the host star visible in Ca II H & K and/or H$\alpha$. The emission would be bound to the planetary orbit, not to the rotation period of the star. We searched for SPI in a sample of 7 stars with massive close-in planets using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken at HRS (HET) and FEROS (La Silla). We find no periodically recurring emission in the planet-hosting stars. In the case of HD 41004 AB, a binary system consisting of a K dwarf and an M dwarf, where the M dwarf is orbited by a brown dwarf companion, we find signs of cyclic variation in the Ca II K and H$\alpha$ emission lines that could be associated to interactions between the M dwarf and its companion. We present our first results of this interesting system that may become an important system for the understanding of SPI.
The activity and rotation limit in the Hyades
U. Seemann,A. Reiners,A. Seifahrt,M. Kürster
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We conduct a study of K to M type stars to investigate the activity and the rotation limit in the Hyades. We use a sample of 40 stars in this intermediate-age cluster (~625 Myr) to probe stellar rotation in the threshold region where stellar activity becomes prevalent. Here we present projected equatorial velocities (vsin i) and chromospheric activity measurements (H{\alpha}) that indicate the existence of fast rotators in the Hyades at spectral types where also the fraction of stars with H{\alpha} emission shows a rapid increase ("H{\alpha} limit"). The locus of enhanced rotation (and activity) thus seems to be shifted to earlier types in contrast to what is seen as the rotation limit in field stars. The relation between activity and rotation appears to be similar to the one observed in fields stars.
Precise radial velocities of Proxima Centauri
M. Kürster,A. P. Hatzes,W. D. Cochran,S. D?bereiner,K. Dennerl,M. Endl
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We present differential radial velocity measurements of Proxima Centauri collected over 4 years with the ESO CES with a mean precision of $54 ms^{-1}$. We find no evidence of a periodic signal that could corroborate the existence of a sub-stellar companion. We put upper limits (97% confidence) to the companion mass ranging from 1.1 to 22 M_{Jup} at orbital periods of 0.75 to 3000 d, i.e. separations 0.008-2 AU from Prox Cen. Our mass limits concur with limits found by precise astrometry (Benedict et al. 1998a and priv. comm.) which strongly constrain the period range 50-600 d to 1.1-0.22 M_{Jup}. Combining both results we exclude a brown dwarf or supermassive planet at separations 0.008-0.69 AU from Prox Cen. We also find that, at the level of our precision, the RV data are not affected by stellar activity.
Night-time sudden commencements observed by CHAMP and ground-based magnetometers and their relationship to solar wind parameters
H. Lühr, K. Schlegel, T. Araki, M. Rother,M. F rster
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: We have studied 41 Sudden Commencements (SC) using simultaneous magnetic field data from the CHAMP satellite and ground stations of the years 2000–2007. They are all night time events, since the influence of ionospheric currents on the SC is supposed to be minimal at night. This is confirmed by our study for geomagnetic latitudes below ±40°. We further found that the onset times of the SC signature at satellite altitude and on the ground are the same within an uncertainty of 10 s and that the slopes of the corresponding magnetic field variation are very similar. For magnetic latitudes poleward of ±40° the amplitude of SCs increases both at the satellite and on ground, probably a consequence of field-aligned currents. CHAMP sometimes records small-scale magnetic variations different from the ground, which can be explained by local ionospheric currents. We also studied the relationship between the SC amplitude seen by CHAMP and the corresponding abrupt solar wind dynamic pressure change, using ACE data. Our results are compared with earlier studies using ground-based data and with theoretical expectations. It turns out that the induction effect in the Earth is quite small at low latitudes. Another important result is that the magnetic signature near the Earth is over-proportionally reduced for weak SC events. A discussion of accuracy and the uncertainty of our results completes the paper.
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