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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 316748 matches for " K N Muralidhara "
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New Generation Routing Protocol over Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks based on Neuro-Fuzzy-Genetic Paradigm
International Journal of Ad Hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing , 2011,
Abstract: There is a vast amount of researched literature available on Route Finding and Link Establishment inMANET protocols based on various concepts such as “pro-active”, “reactive”, “power awareness”,“cross-layering” etc. Most of these techniques are rather restrictive, taking into account a few of theseveral aspects that go into effective route establishment. When we look at practical implementations ofMANETs, we have to take into account various factors in totality, not in isolation. The several factors thatdecide and influence the routing have to be considered as a whole in the difficult task of finding the bestsolution in route finding and optimization. The inputs to the system are manifold and apparently unrelated.Most of the parameters are imprecise or non-crisp in nature. The uncertainty and imprecision lead to thinkthat intelligent routing techniques are essential and important in evolving robust and dependable solutionsto route finding. The obvious method by which this can be achieved is the deployment of soft computingtechniques such as Neural Nets, Fuzzy Logic and Genetic algorithms. Neural Networks help us to solve thecomplex problem of transforming the inputs to outputs without apriori knowledge of what the relationshipis between inputs and outputs. Fuzzy Logic helps us to deal with imprecise and ill-conditioned data.Genetic Algorithms help us to select the best possible solution from the solution space in an optimal sense.Our paper presented here below seeks to explore new horizons in this direction. The results of ourexperimentation have been very satisfactory and we have achieved the goal of optimal route finding to alarge extent. There is of course considerable room for further refinements.
Low Power Reversible Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor
Rangaraju H G,Venugopal U,Muralidhara K N,Raja K B
International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems , 2010,
Abstract: In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications inLow Power CMOS, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays animportant role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, Reversible eight-bit ParallelBinary Adder/Subtractor with Design I, Design II and Design III are proposed. In all the three designapproaches, the full Adder and Subtractors are realized in a single unit as compared to only full Subtractorin the existing design. The performance analysis is verified using number reversible gates, Garbageinput/outputs and Quantum Cost. It is observed that Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractorwith Design III is efficient compared to Design I, Design II and existing design
Low Power Reversible Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor
H G Rangaraju,U. Venugopal,K N Muralidhara,K B Raja
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5121/vlsic.2010.1303
Abstract: In recent years, Reversible Logic is becoming more and more prominent technology having its applications in Low Power CMOS, Quantum Computing, Nanotechnology, and Optical Computing. Reversibility plays an important role when energy efficient computations are considered. In this paper, Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design I, Design II and Design III are proposed. In all the three design approaches, the full Adder and Subtractors are realized in a single unit as compared to only full Subtractor in the existing design. The performance analysis is verified using number reversible gates, Garbage input/outputs and Quantum Cost. It is observed that Reversible eight-bit Parallel Binary Adder/Subtractor with Design III is efficient compared to Design I, Design II and existing design.
The covert set-cover problem with application to Network Discovery
Sandeep Sen,V. N. Muralidhara
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We address a version of the set-cover problem where we do not know the sets initially (and hence referred to as covert) but we can query an element to find out which sets contain this element as well as query a set to know the elements. We want to find a small set-cover using a minimal number of such queries. We present a Monte Carlo randomized algorithm that approximates an optimal set-cover of size $OPT$ within $O(\log N)$ factor with high probability using $O(OPT \cdot \log^2 N)$ queries where $N$ is the input size. We apply this technique to the network discovery problem that involves certifying all the edges and non-edges of an unknown $n$-vertices graph based on layered-graph queries from a minimal number of vertices. By reducing it to the covert set-cover problem we present an $O(\log^2 n)$-competitive Monte Carlo randomized algorithm for the covert version of network discovery problem. The previously best known algorithm has a competitive ratio of $\Omega (\sqrt{n\log n})$ and therefore our result achieves an exponential improvement.
Comparative modeling of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme and its mutational assessment: in silico approach
Dowlathabad Muralidhara Rao,Anuraj Nayarisseri,Mukesh Yadav,Showmy K.S.
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research , 2010,
Abstract: DNA-synthesis, DNA-repair, and DNA imprinting processes require efficient conversion ofhomocysteine to methionine. This methylation is catalyzed by methylentetrahydrofolate reductase throughreduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate into 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Normal DNA synthesis isconsidered critical for physiological functions of body. The enzyme is coded by the gene with the symbolMTHFR on chromosome 1 location p36.3 in humans. At least 24 mutations in the MTHFR gene have beenidentified in people with homocystinuria. There is DNA sequence variants (genetic polymorphisms)associated with this gene. Two of the most investigated are C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131)single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Mutations at C677T and A1298C which confer amino acidsubstitution Ala222Val and Glu429Ala respectively with a considerable reduced activity. This polymorphismand mild hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with neural tube defects in offspring, arterial and venousthrombosis, and cardiovascular disease. 677TT individuals are at a decreased risk for certain leukemia andcolon cancer. The MTHFR gene could be one of the factors of overall schizophrenia risk. In silico analysisnow has added important and wide range applications to proteomics from structure modeling to its functionallevels. Several algorithms have been suggested from many authors to bring an accurate modeling at its bestbut ultimately every protein has its own variant features to be treated by the same algorithm. Studies inproteomics through computational techniques need complements between critical requirement for a proteinand features available in an algorithm. Comparative modeling is now bridging the gap between availablesequences and structures modeled with accuracy. Effective refinement techniques made it capable ofdriving models toward native structure. Structure of MTHFR can assist the study of involvement of thisenzyme in the disorders and can provide better level of understanding about structural aspects of it. Wehave modeled wild type and mutated type MTHFR using comparative modeling and structure validation hasgiven appreciable values. This work can further account for the structure based drug design community inthe search of MTHFR inhibitors.
Identification of Gene Expression Signature in Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Carcinoma
Arvind D. Thakkar, Hemanth Raj, Debarshi Chakrabarti, Ravishankar, N. Saravanan, Bhaskaran Muthuvelan, Arun Balakrishnan and Muralidhara Padigaru
Biomarkers in Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/BIC.S3793
Abstract: A significant group of patient with estrogen receptor (ER) α positive breast tumors fails to appreciably respond to endocrine therapy. An increased understanding of the molecular basis of estrogen-mediated signal transduction and resultant gene expression may lead to novel strategies for treating breast cancer. In this study, we sought to identify the dysregulated genes in breast tumors related to ERα status. Microarray analyses of 31 tumor samples showed 108 genes differentially expressed in ERα (+) and ERα (-) primary breast tumors. Further analyses of gene lists indicated that a significant number of dysregulated genes were involved in mRNA transcription and cellular differentiation. The majority of these genes were found to have promoter-binding sites for E74-like factor 5 (ELF5; 54.6% genes), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1; 22.2% genes), and nuclear transcription factor Y alpha (NFYA; 32.4% genes). Six candidate genes (NTN4, SLC7A8, MLPH, ENPP1, LAMB2, and PLAT ) with differential expression were selected for further validation studies using RT-qPCR (76 clinical specimen) and immunohistochemistry (48 clinical specimen). Our studies indicate significant over- expression of all the six genes in ERα (+) breast tumors as compared to ERα (-) breast tumors. In vitro studies using T-47D breast cancer cell line confirmed the estrogen dependant expression of four of the above six genes (SLC7A8, ENPP1, LAMB2, and PLAT ). Collectively, our study provides further insights into the molecular basis of estrogen-dependent breast cancer and identifies “candidate biomarkers” that could be useful for predicting endocrine responsiveness.
Vulnerability of Prepubertal Mice Testis to Iron Induced Oxidative Dysfunctions In Vivo and Functional Implications
Thyagaraju BM,Muralidhara
International Journal of Fertility & Sterility , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The present study describes the susceptibility of prepubertal testis of mice toprooxidant induced oxidative impairments both under in vitro and in vivo exposure conditions.Materials and Methods: Following in vitro exposure to iron (5,10 and 25 M), oxidative responsemeasured in terms of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxide levels in testis of pre pubertal mice (4wk) was more robust compared to that of pubertal mice (6 wk).Results: Further, in an in vivo study, pre pubertal mice administered (i.p) sub lethal doses (12.5,25 and 50mg/100g bw/d, 5d) of Iron dextran, showed significant induction of oxidative stressresponse in testis cytosol and mitochondria manifested as lipid peroxidation, generation of reactiveoxygen species, hydroperoxide levels and enhanced protein carbonyl levels (a measure of proteinoxidation). Diminished levels of GSH and total thiols in both cytosol and mitochondria of testissuggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymessuch as glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD were discernible suggesting theongoing oxidative stress in vivo. These oxidative impairments were accompanied by functionalimplications in testis as reflected in the altered activities of dehydrogenases and reduced activitiesof both 3 - and 17 -hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide an account of the susceptibility of prepubertal testisto iron-induced oxidative stress, associated functional consequences and this model is being furtherexploited for understanding the implications on the physiology of testis and consequent effect onfertility.
Dr. C. Muralidhara Kannan
The Dawn Journal , 2013,
Gupta Sudesh,Sharma Muralidhara
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The effective relief of pain is of utmost important in any surgical case. This should be achieved not only for humanitarian reasons but it also has some physiological benefits. Effective pain means a smoother postoperative course with earlier discharge from sanatorium. The issue of postoperative pain management with ayurvedic panacea is one of the major areas of research & has come under increased scrutiny. In the present study Triphala Guggulu & Gandhak Rasayana are tried in the management of postoperative pain management w.s.r. to inguinal hernia repair.The objectives of the study was to assess the efficacy of Triphala Guggulu & Gandhak Rasayana in postoperative pain and to compare the results with the control group treated with prophylactic analgesics and antibiotics. It is a single blind clinical study ; where 30 patients who have undergone the elective surgery of inguinal hernia were selected from Dhanwanthari surgical section of SDM Ayurvedic hospital ,Udupi Patients were randomly grouped into two groups i.e. Control & Trial. In Control group, Tab Diclofenac Sodium 50 mg B.d & Gentamycin 80 mg I.V. B.d was given In Trial group, Triphala Guggulu 450 mgs & Gandhak Rasayana 250 mgs, each 1 tab TID was given. The results were analysed based on the proforma prepared for study.Both the groups showed that sufficient analgesia could be achieved by Triphala Guggulu & Gandhak Rasayana compared to Diclofenac sodium w.s.r .to inguinal hernia & the treatment is proved very cost effective. Triphala Guggulu & Gandhak Rasayana in postoperative pain management w.s.r to inguinal hernia.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The effect of retrogression and re-aging (RRA) on the strength and corrosion performance was evaluated for AA 7049 aluminium alloy. Samples from extruded profiles were treated to T6 and T73 temper. Also Retrogression was performed at four different temperatures between 1800C – 2400C for various times followed by re-aging at1200C. The properties like ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness and conductivity measurement,intergrannular corrosion and exfoliation studies are presented. The results of experimental work indicate thatRRA treatment enhances the strength equivalent to or greater than AA 7049 at T6 temper and exfoliation corrosion resistance comparable to T73 temper.
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