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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210754 matches for " Justin L. McCarville "
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Spaceflight Influences both Mucosal and Peripheral Cytokine Production in PTN-Tg and Wild Type Mice
Justin L. McCarville, Sandra T. Clarke, Padmaja Shastri, Yi Liu, Martin Kalmokoff, Stephen P. J. Brooks, Julia M. Green-Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068961
Abstract: Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.
Rad51 ATP binding but not hydrolysis is required to recruit Rad10 in synthesis-dependent strand annealing sites in S. cerevisiae  [PDF]
Justin Karlin, Paula L. Fischhaber
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33033

Several modes of eukaryotic of DNA double strand break repair (DSBR) depend on synapsis of complementary DNA. The Rad51 ATPase, the S. cerevisiae homolog of E. coli RecA, plays a key role in this process by catalyzing homology searching and strand exchange between an invading DNA strand and a repair template (e.g. sister chromatid or homologous chromosome). Synthesis dependent strand annealing (SDSA), a mode of DSBR, requires Rad51. Another repair enzyme, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease, acts in the final stages of SDSA, hydrolyzing 3 overhanging single-stranded DNA. Here we show in vivo by fluo-rescence microscopy that the ATP binding function of yeast Rad51 is required to recruit Rad10 SDSA sites indicating that Rad51 pre-synaptic filament formation must occur prior to the recruitment of Rad1-Rad10. Our data also show that Rad51 ATPase activity, an important step in Rad51 filament disassembly, is not absolutely required in order to recruit Rad1- Rad10 to DSB sites.

Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground
Michael T. McCarville, David H. Soh, Gregory L. Tylka, Matthew E. O’Neal
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086415
Abstract: Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.
Sub-nanometer flattening of a 45-cm long, 45-actuator x-ray deformable mirror
L. A. Poyneer,T. McCarville,T. Pardini,D. Palmer,A. Brooks,M. J. Pivovaroff,B. Macintosh
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1364/AO.53.003404
Abstract: We have built a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror of super-polished single-crystal silicon that has 45 actuators along the tangential axis. After assembly the surface height error was 19 nm rms. With use of high-precision visible-light metrology and precise control algorithms, we have actuated the x-ray deformable mirror and flattened its entire surface to 0.7 nm rms controllable figure error. This is, to our knowledge, the first sub-nanometer active flattening of a substrate longer than 15 cm.
Oral Delivery of a Probiotic Induced Changes at the Nasal Mucosa of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis Subjects after Local Allergen Challenge: A Randomised Clinical Trial
Kamal Ivory, Andrew M. Wilson, Prasanna Sankaran, Marta Westwood, Justin McCarville, Claire Brockwell, Allan Clark, Jack R. Dainty, Laurian Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Claudio Nicoletti
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078650
Abstract: Objective To determine effects of probiotic consumption on clinical and immunological parameters of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in an out-of-season single nasal allergen challenge. Methods In a study registered at ClinicalTrials.Gov (NCT01123252), a 16-week dietary intervention was undertaken in 60 patients with allergic rhinitis (>16 years old). Using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled anonymised design, the patients were divided equally into two groups. One group was given a dairy drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota to ingest daily while the other consumed a similar drink without bacteria. Participants attended the clinic on two consecutive days before the intervention and then again at the end of the study period. On the first day of each 2-day visit, following clinical examination, assessments were made of total nasal symptoms scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow. Nasal scrapings, nasal lavage and blood were collected for laboratory analyses of cellular phenotypes, soluble mediator release and in vitro responses to pollen allergen. These procedures were repeated 24 hours following nasal allergen challenge. Results Prior to and following intervention there were no detectable differences between study groups in measured clinical outcome. After intervention, there were differences between groups in their percentages of CD86+ epithelial cells (p = 0.0148), CD86+CD252+ non-epithelial cells (p = 0.0347), sIL-1RII release (p = 0.0289) and IL-1β (p = 0.0224) levels at the nasal mucosa. Delivery of probiotic also suppressed production of sCD23 (p = 0.0081), TGF-β (p = 0.0283) and induced increased production of IFN-γ (p = 0.0351) in supernatants of cultured peripheral blood. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance This study did not show significant probiotic-associated changes with respect to the primary clinical endpoint. An absence of overt clinical benefit may be due to an inability of single nasal challenges to accurately represent natural allergen exposure. Nevertheless, oral delivery of probiotics produced changes of the immunological microenvironment at the nasal mucosa in individuals affected by SAR. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT01123252
The Intestinal Microbiota and Viral Susceptibility
Justin L. Sonnenburg
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00092
Abstract: Many infections start with microbial invasion of mucosal surfaces, which are typically colonized by a community of resident microbes. A growing body of literature demonstrates that the resident microbiota plays a significant role in host susceptibility to pathogens. Recent work has largely focused on the considerable effect that the intestinal microbiota can have upon bacterial pathogenesis. These studies reveal many significant gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms by which the resident community impacts pathogen invasion and the nature of the ensuing host immune response. It is likely that as viral pathogens become the focus of studies that examine microbiota–host interaction, substantial effects of resident communities exerted via diverse mechanisms will be elucidated. Here we provide a perspective of the exciting emerging field that examines how the intestinal microbiota influences host susceptibility to viruses.
Convergence of Dirichlet Eigenvalues for Elliptic Systems on Perturbed Domains
Justin L. Taylor
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We consider the eigenvalues of an elliptic operator for systems with bounded, measurable, and symmetric coefficients. We assume we have two non-empty, open, disjoint, and bounded sets and add a set of small measure to form the perturbed domain. Then we show that the Dirichlet eigenvalues corresponding to the family of perturbed domains converge to the Dirichlet eigenvalues corresponding to the unperturbed domain. Moreover, our rate of convergence is independent of the eigenvalues. In this paper, we consider the Lam\'{e} system, systems which satisfy a strong ellipticity condition, and systems which satisfy a Legendre-Hadamard ellipticity condition.
Patient preferences and factors related to the pre-procedure process at a large, urban county hospital  [PDF]
Lukejohn W. Day, Michelle Nazareth, Justin L. Sewell
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2013.31002

Background: Evaluation of the pre-procedural process prior to endoscopic procedures has never been conducted. Methods: Prospective cross-sectional, multi-language survey was administered to outpatients undergoing endoscopy at a large, diverse county hospital that examined patients’ pre-procedural preferences. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between patient preferences and several patient-related variables. Results: 128/156 outpatients completed the survey. The majority of respondents were female (53.1%), did not speak English (61.7%), were of Asian (39.1%) or Hispanic (29.7%) racial background, and had a mean age of 56.1 ± 15.7 years. Most patients underwent colonoscopy (48.4%) with 90.6% of patients knowing the indication for their procedure. While waiting for their endoscopic procedure, 42.2% of patients preferred waiting in a gurney while 28.1% preferred to wait in a chair. In terms of being comfortable wearing a hos- pital gown and sitting in a chair or gurney in the pre-procedure area, mean patient anxiety scores were 5.2 ± 3.3 and 6.1 ± 3.2, respectively (scale of 1 - 10). Race was associated with several pre-procedural patient preferences; Hispanics were less comfortable than Asians wearing a hospital gown while sitting in a chair with other patients prior to their procedure (OR = 0.3, CI 0.1 - 1.0) while Whites and African-Americans were less likely than Asians to prefer sitting in a chair as compared to a gurney before their procedure (OR = 0.09, CI 0.008 - 0.9 and OR = 0.07, CI 0.007 - 0.8, respectively). Patients who had undergone a prior endoscopic procedure were less comfortable wearing a hospital gown and sitting in a chair (OR = 0.3, CI 0.1 - 0.7) or gurney (OR = 0.4, CI 0.2 - 1.0) in the pre-procedure area. Conclusion: A patient’s race and having had a prior endoscopic procedure were the most powerful predictors on pre-procedure patient preferences while sex, type of endoscopic procedure and patient knowledge of the indication for their procedure were not. Our study highlights the importance of patient preferences and factors involved in the pre procedure process at a large, diverse county hospital.

Group fitness is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy adults  [PDF]
Jinger S. Gottschall, Justin L. Jones, Jackie Mills, Bryce Hastings
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.31017
Abstract: In the past 5 years, 1 of every 3 deaths in the United Stateswas attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular physical activity has numerous benefits associated with the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite these details, 60% of Americans are not regularly physically active and 25% are not active at all. Previous studies have found significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors by combining cardiorespiratory and strength training into one exercise program. The current pilot study augments the approach by utilizing a group fitness program that mimics the Physical Activity Guidelines for Fitness. Therefore our purpose was to evaluate if a multimodal group fitness intervention could singularly produce the physiological and musculoskeletal health benefits of the established physical activity prescription. Twenty-five sedentary, but otherwise healthy, adults (15 women and 10 men) between the ages of 25 - 40 years completed the protocol of a 30-week group exercise program. It started with a 6-week familiarization period, continued with a 12-week block of 6 group fitness classes per week (3 cardiovascular, 2 strength, 1 flexibility), and concluded with a 12-week block of 7 classes per week (4 cardiovascular, 2 strength, 1 flexibility). We completed submaximal oxygen consumption treadmill tests, fasting blood draws and iDXA scans at 3 time points (baseline, midpoint, final) and compared the data using a paired t-test (p < 0.05). Compared to baseline measurements, the final measurements demonstrated that the participants had statistically significant reductions in body mass, fat body mass percentage, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides and elevations in oxygen consumption, lean body mass percentages, and HDL-C. Based upon our results, group fitness may be an ideal method to minimize attrition and maximize health benefits in a comprehensive manner to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Nitrogen Constrains the Growth of Late Summer Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie  [PDF]
Justin D. Chaffin, Thomas B. Bridgeman, Darren L. Bade
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36A003
Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is generally considered to be the main limiting nutrient to freshwater phytoplankton productivity. However, recent research is drawing attention to the importance of nitrogen (N) in freshwater eutrophication and N often constrains growth of cyanobacteria in small lakes. In this study we determined phytoplankton nutrient limitation in a large lake, Lake Erie during two growing seasons. During 2010 and 2011, nutrient enrichment bioassays (+P, +N and, +P and N) were conducted monthly from June through September with water collected in Maumee Bay (site MB18) and in the center of the western basin (site WBC). Nutrient concentrations were monitored every other week. At MB18, total P concentration was often >3 mmol/L and nitrate concentration decreased from >250 mmol/L in early summer to <1 mmol/L in late summer. Nitrogen and P levels were about five-fold less at WBC. Bioassays indicated that phytoplankton nutrient limitation varied in summer, spatially, and even among phytoplankton groups. For site MB18, +P increased chlorophyll concentration in one of the eight bioassays, indicating that P did not typically limit production. For site WBC, +P increased chlorophyll concentration in six of the eight bioassays. As a result of very low ambient nitrate concentration (<5 mmol/L) in late summer, +N (without P) increased chlorophyll concentration, suggesting symptoms of N-limitation. The N-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena became dominant following N-limitation. This study highlights the need to reduce P loading to restore water quality. Furthermore, due to low nitrate concentration, the severity of the cyanobacterial blooms could be worse if not for N-limitation in western Lake Erie.
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