Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Maternal age is a significant factor in infertility treatment. Ovarian function and oocyte quality decrease with age, whereas the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities increases. In this study, improvement of oocyte quality and ovarian function were attempted using a herbal medicine comprising 7 crude drugs:Angelicae radix,Rehmanniae radix,Plantaginis semen,Lonicerae flos,Carthami flos,Ginseng radix, andCucurbita moschata Duch. Thirty-one women who repeatedly failed to conceive by intracytoplasmic sperm injection took the herbal medicine before breakfast and dinner from the start of menstrual cycle in the ovum pickup cycle. Average patient age was 38.5 ± 0.7 years, and the average ovum pickup frequency on the first dosage day was 7.9 ± 1.5. To analyze the effects of herbal medicine intake, the number of recovered and mature oocytes, their morphology and physical qualities, as well as the rates of fertilization, oocyte development, and pregnancy was compared before and after intake. The recovered and mature oocyte numbers, oocyte morphology and physical qualities, and fertilization rate were not significantly different before and after drug intake. However, the oocyte development rate was significantly higher(58.0%) after herbal medicine intake than before (32.5%; p = 0.0003). Moreover, the successful pregnancy rate was significantly higher after intake than before (6.9% versus 0%; p = 0.0111). Herbal medicine may constitute a useful adjunct to assisted reproductive technology in women.
This study aims to explain why children are
impatient. Using a biological framework called the life history
theory, the study investigates the evolutionary root of time preference, paying particular
attention to childhood. The results show that the biologically endowed rate of
time preference is equal to the mortality rate not only in adulthood but also
in childhood, reflecting the change in the biological value of survival.
Mortality is the baseline for time preference through the entire course of
life. These results are consistent with the findings in previous empirical and
experimental studies that the discount rate is U-shaped in age, and account for
why young children, in particular, are impatient. In addition, the difference
in time preference between adults and children provides a biological
explanation for the parent-offspring conflict, in which the higher
discount rate among children causes parents and their children to disagree over
intertemporal allocation of resources in collective
decision-making particularly within the household.