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Targeting Interleukin-4 Receptor Alpha by Hybrid Peptide for Novel Biliary Tract Cancer Therapy
Kahori Seto,Junichi Shoda,Tomohisa Horibe,Eiji Warabi,Masayuki Kohno,Toru Yanagawa,Hiroki Bukawa,Yasuni Nakanuma,Koji Kawakami
International Journal of Hepatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/584650
Abstract: It is known that the interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors. We previously designed novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of binding peptide to IL-4Rα and cell-lytic peptide and reported that the designed IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide exhibited cytotoxic and antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo against the human pancreatic cancer cells expressing IL-4Rα. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular targeted therapy for human biliary tract cancer (BTC). The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in six BTC cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50) as low as 5?μM. We also showed that IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide in combination with gemcitabine exhibited synergistic cytotoxic activity in vitro. In addition, intravenous administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human BTC in vivo. Taken together, these results indicated that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide is a potent agent that might provide a novel therapy for patients with BTC. 1. Introduction Biliary tract cancer such as gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer as well as intrahepatic bile duct cancer (one of the primary liver cancers) is likely to undergo metastasis to the peritoneum (peritoneal dissemination) or the liver at early stages and is often resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These cancers have been thus viewed as intractable cancers unlikely to be cured completely. In Japan, the incidence of biliary tract cancer and intrahepatic bile duct cancer is about 10 out of every 100,000 people [1]. As for intrahepatic bile duct cancer, both the incidence and death rate have been rising in Japan in recent years, resembling the trend observed in western countries [2, 3]. In Japan, gemcitabine and S-1 have recently begun to be used for anticancer chemotherapy, and these drugs are expected to prolong the survival period of patients as compared to existing anticancer drugs [4]. However, because of frequent adverse events of the hematological system arising from these drugs and because of compromised hepatic function often noted in patients with intrahepatic bile duct cancer due to accompanying liver cirrhosis and in those with extrahepatic bile duct cancer or gallbladder cancer due to accompanying obstructive cholestasis, treatment with these drugs has to be discontinued or stopped. To improve the outcome of treatment of these cancers, it is very
Trigonal minimal surfaces in flat tori
Toshihiro Shoda
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper, we study trigonal minimal surfaces in flat tori. First, we show a topological obstruction similar to that of hyperelliptic minimal surfaces. Actually, the genus of trigonal minimal surface in 3-dimensional flat torus must be 1 (mod 3). Next, we construct an explicit example in the higher codimensional case. This surface satisfies good properties and is theoretically distinct from traditional examples.
New components of the Moduli space of minimal surfaces in 4-dimensional flat tori
Toshihiro Shoda
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider new components of the key space of the Moduli space of minimal surfaces in flat 4-tori and calculate their dimensions. Moreover, we construct an example of minimal surfaces in 4-tori and obtain an element of the Moduli. In the process of the construction, we give an example of minimal surfaces with good property in a 3-torus distinct from classical examples.
Multiple Intelligence Theory Can Help Promote Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental Disorders: Historical Reviews of Intelligence Theory, Measurement Methods, and Suggestions for Inclusive Education  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49086

Inclusive education, based on the principle that all children (including those with disabilities) should receive similar education, has been recently adopted in primary and secondary schools throughout several countries. Within an inclusive education context, teachers are faced with the challenge of developing their knowledge and skills necessary to properly assess the intellectual abilities of a wide range of children. Although intelligence has been examined for over 100 years, researchers are still debating what abilities should or should not be classified as belonging to the domain of intelligence. In order to effectively apply intelligence theory and assessment methods for inclusive education, we compared traditional intelligence theory (Spearman’s two-factor model) with a more recent intelligence theory (Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory). Spearman’s theory focuses on elementary perceptual processes by using the single g factor, whereas Gardner’s theory recognizes several types of intelligence. On the basis of these reviews, we propose the utility of multiple intelligence theory for inclusive education, considering the various profiles of intelligence shown by children with intellectual disabilities and developmental disorders.

Suggestions for a Teacher Training Program for Inclusive Education in a Japanese University  [PDF]
Junichi Takahashi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48074

Inclusive education has been recently proposed in primary and secondary educations in many countries. Children who need special education support should be educated together with typically developing children in general classes. Although many studies have examined the effectiveness of inclusive education, researchers have pointed out that some general education teachers experience problems in their relationships with children who have disabilities such as developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities. In this paper, we review teacher training programs in a Japanese university and offer suggestions to enhance teachers’ relationships with disabled children. In our discussion, we focused on adult attachment theory, which is an affective connection and interactions between self and others. First, we reviewed the importance of teachers’ relationships with disabled children. Second, we reviewed attachment theories with respect to the quality of teacher-child relationships, and lastly, we proposed that adult attachment theory is a mediator in the quality of teacher-child relationships. We proposed a direction for the application of these conceptual assumptions to the teacher-training program for inclusive education in a Japanese university.

Dynamic behavior of hydrogen desorption from pure iron and inconel 625 during elastic and plastic deformations
Takai, K.;Shoda, H;
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-70762010000200026
Abstract: dynamic behavior of hydrogen desorption from pure iron with a body-centered-cubic lattice and inconel 625 with a face-centered-cubic lattice was examined during tensile deformation using a quadrupole mass spectrometer in a vacuum chamber integrated with a tensile testing machine. hydrogen desorption from hydrogen-charged specimens was detected under various strain rates and cyclic stresses. hydrogen desorption rarely increased under elastic deformation. in contrast, it increased rapidly at the proof stress when plastic deformation began, reached its maximum, and then decreased gradually with increasing applied strain for both pure iron and inconel 625. this desorption behavior is closely related to hydrogen dragging by moving dislocations. the thermal desorption analysis results showed that the amount of desorbed hydrogen differed at each strain rate. this difference in the amount of desorbed hydrogen transported by dislocations depends on the balance between the hydrogen diffusion rate and mobile dislocation velocity.
Comparative Study on the Decolorization of Orange II by Zero-valence Tin in Citric and Hydrochloric Acids
Shizuo Nishide,Makoto Shoda
Energy and Environment Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/eer.v2n1p1
Abstract: Zero-valence tin reductively degraded a persistent azo dye, Orange II to produce colorless aromatic amines. The effects of acid concentrations and initial Orange II concentrations on the decolorization of Orange II by tin in citric and hydrochloric acids were investigated. The decolorization reaction in citric acid was faster than that in hydrochloric acid at 2.5 and 5 mM acid concentrations. The faster reaction would be related to the characteristic dissolution reaction of tin in citric acid. The first-order kinetic was applicable in citric acid over the examined range of 0.1 - 0.4 mM initial Orange II. However, at more than 0.2 mM initial Orange II the first-order kinetic was not applicable in hydrochloric acid and thus the relaxation first-order reaction kinetic was applied. The result that zero-valence-tin/citric acid system demonstrated successful decolorization in repeated use supports the possibility of its application for azo dye wastewater.
Minimal surfaces with two ends which have the least total absolute curvature
Shoichi Fujimori,Toshihiro Shoda
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider complete non-catenoidal minimal surfaces of finite total curvature with two ends. A family of such minimal surfaces with least total absolute curvature is given. Moreover, we obtain a uniqueness theorem for this family from its symmetries.
Diamond Particles Deposited among Nickel/Copper Particles in Energy Controlled CH4/H2 RF Discharge Plasmas  [PDF]
Junichi Emi, Satoru Iizuka
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.23025
Abstract: Formation of diamond particles was investigated in an energy-controlled CH4/H2 radio-frequency (RF) discharge plasma. Here, in particular, it was examined how diamond particles grew on a nickel substrate under an influence of Cu vapor that was supplied from a heated Cu wire. Here, the plasma was generated by a hollow-magnetron-type (HMT) RF plasma source at the frequency of 13.56 MHz. Total pressure was kept at 100 mTorr. Diamond particles grew besides Ni and Cu particles. From Raman spectrum the substrate surface was covered with thin graphite film deposited as a background layer. It was shown that diamond could grow in a self-organized manner even when the other atomic gas species such as Ni and Cu were contained in the gas at the same time during the growth process.
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis in the appendectomy scar: A case report  [PDF]
Masaru Hayashi, Akiko Shoda, Nobuaki Kosaka, Masaru Kojima, Nobuhide Masawa, Ichio Fukasawa
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37100

We report a very rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from abdominal wall endometriosis in the appendectomy scar. A 47-year-old woman visited the surgical department, since she had a gradually growing and painful tumor both in an appendectomy scar and at an umbilical site. She underwent appendectomy at age 18 years, and noticed the tumor at age 22 years. Partial tumor resection was performed in that department, and the pathology revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma. She was referred to our department for radical therapy. Tumors in the both sites were dissected together with some swelling lymph nodes in our department. A pathological diagnosis of the tumor in the umbilical site showed only benign endometriosis. In contrast, the tumor in the appendectomy scar showed benign endometriosis, atypical endometriosis and well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Resected lymph nodes also contained endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and were diagnosed as metastases. It was concluded that the endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the tumor of the appendectomy scar was a malignant transformation arising from abdominal wall endometriosis from the pathological findings. Since the operation, adjuvant and maintenance chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin had been administered for 3 years. She is free of disease 3.5 years after the operation.

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