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This paper reviews studies on dissolution, derivatization, and
nanomaterial processing of chitin using an ionic liquid as useful media.
Because chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on the earth after
cellulose, there is major interest in conversion of native chitin
resources into various useful materials after proper dissolution in suitable
solvents. For the derivatization and nanomaterial processing of chitin, the
author has been focusing on ionic liquids because which have been found to be
used as good solvents for cellulose in a past decade. The author found that an
ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr), dissolved chitin in
concentrations up to 4.8 wt% and mixtures of the higher amounts of chitin with
AMIMBr gave ion gels. Acetylation, the simplest derivatization, of chitin using
acetic anhydride was achieved in the AMIMBr solvent under mild conditions.
Furthermore, the chitin nanofibers were fabricated by regeneration
technique from the chitin ion gel with AMIMBr using methanol. Moreover,
filtration of the chitin nanofiber dispersion with methanol was carried out to
give a chitin nanofiber film. The chitin nanofiber-poly(vinyl alcohol)
composite film was also prepared from the ion gel by co-regeneration method.
Seed priming is a physiological seed enhancement method.
Hydro- or osmotic priming can advance germination under adequate moisture
conditions. During direct seeding on well-drained paddy and upland fields, rice
seeds occasionally encounter low soil moisture conditions. Under these
conditions, rice seeds need to undergo rapid germination and secure
emergence through improved water absorption capacity and seed bioactive. This
study aims to clarify the effects of seed hydropriming on germination and
seedling vigor in rice under different soil moisture conditions. The study employed three
hydration conditions such as priming, soaking, and control. The seeds to be
primed and soaked were submerged in tap water at 30℃ for 12 h.
For priming, the seeds were subsequently dried to attain their initial seed
weight, but the seeds for soaking were not dried before sowing, and the control
seeds were untreated. In addition, different soil moisture conditions, such as
3%, 6%, 8%, 11%, 15%, and 20%, were set. Therefore, emergence time shortened
with seed priming at 3%-11% soil moisture contents. In particular, at 8% soil
moisture content, priming and soaking decreased emergence time by
26.8 h and 21.7 h, respectively compared with that of the control. At 8%-15% soil moisture
contents, shoot elongation rate obtained with the priming seeds increased
>1.2 times compared with that obtained with the control and soaking seeds.
At >8% soil moisture content, shoot dry weight obtained with the priming
seeds increased >1.3 times compared with that obtained with the soaking seeds.
Furthermore, at declining soil moisture conditions, the increase in
root dry weight is promoted by seed priming compared with that in the control
seeds. These results suggest that increased root growth affects plant water
absorption under low soil moisture conditions due to priming. This study
demonstrates that seed priming facilitates rapid emergence and seedling vigor,
unless extremely dry or flooded soil moisture conditions are present at
For most of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, are known to have intellectual disabilities (ID). Students with ID often show the difficulties in reading. Especially, they are difficult to acquire the equivalence relations among pictures, written letters, and sounds and to have fluent eye movement during reading. Previous research suggested that a student with autism acquired Kanji reading skills by using stimulus pairing training. However, for acquiring word reading skills, new training which facilitates the fluent eye movement is necessary and we developed sequential stimulus pairing training. In the present study, we examined the acquisition of word reading skills through sequential stimulus pairing training for three students with ID who were also diagnosed as WS and three students with ID who were not diagnosed with WS. In a trial, each letters, the word, spoken sound, and picture were presented sequentially. With 6 students, result indicated that they could acquire the word reading skills, and also showed the improvement of their eye movement in reading. The result suggested sequential stimulus pairing training is effective to acquire both equivalence relations and fluent eye movement for wide range of students with ID.