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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36861 matches for " Jun Tabata "
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Intraspecific Relationships and Variation of Two Lefua Species (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes) in the Tokai Region, Honshu, Japan  [PDF]
Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Seiya Hida, Takurou Ozaki, Yuichirou Tabata, Misaki Iwata, Masashi Nakazawa, Youki Fukasawa, Tomonari Asaka
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.92016
Abstract: Two species Lefua echigonia and Lefua sp. 2 of the eight-barbel loach inhabit the Tokai region of Honshu, Japan. We determined sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop region to elucidate intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and variation in these two species. Lefua sp. 2 represented high intraspecific genetic similarity and complicated haplotype network, but three assemblages were recognized, including specimens mainly from Yahagi, Toyo, and Tenryu River systems, respectively, and named Groups 1 to 3. Divergence of Group 1 from the others was marginally supported, but Group 2 was paraphyletic to Group 3, suggesting the existence of two populations, i.e. Yahagi River population and Toyo-Tenryu River population. Lefua echigonia also represented high intraspecific genetic similarity, and two assemblages with slight genetic differentiation were discernible, including specimens from Shizuoka and southeastern Aichi prefectures and those from northwestern Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures, respectively, and named Groups A and B. Star-like relationships of haplotypes suggested the dispersal origin located in eastern Aichi prefecture. The two species are threatened to extinction and thus we proposed evolutionary significant units for conservation.
Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle
Jun Tabata, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Mark C. Mescher
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023799
Abstract: Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.
Characterization of the Temperature Conditions of Inside Narrow Rocky Outcrops that Serve as a Habitat for Semi-Fossorial Mammals  [PDF]
Masahiro A. Iwasa, Mayuh Tabata
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2016.64030
Abstract:
We characterized the temperature conditions inside narrow rocky outcrops that served as habitats for semi-fossorial small mammals in a mountainous locality on the Japanese Islands. Usually, it is considered that the narrow rocky outcrops have poorer resources than the soil ground of forest floors, which have rich vegetation and nutrition. On the basis of this tendency, it is considered that ecologically dominant species occupy the rich soil habitats and subordinate species are chased away to the narrow rocky outcrops by ecological species competitions, resulting in habitat segregation. However, the present temperature data revealed that the temperatures inside rocky terrains were more stable than the shaded ambient temperatures in the forest. The rocky habitats were apparently colder in summer and warmer in winter, in both daily maximum and minimum temperatures, than the ambient temperatures in the forest during the research period. In addition, the daily difference between maximum and minimum temperatures in the rocky habitats was apparently smaller than that of the ambient ones. These temperature conditions in the narrow rocky outcrops are advantageous to the small mammalian metabolic system. Namely, we estimate that the semi-fossorial small mammals are not chased out by the dominant species through ecological competitions and that the semi-fossorial small mammals may occupy the narrow rocky outcrops as a more advantageous habitat than the forest floor.
Variation in Courtship Ultrasounds of Three Ostrinia Moths with Different Sex Pheromones
Takuma Takanashi,Ryo Nakano,Annemarie Surlykke,Haruki Tatsuta,Jun Tabata,Yukio Ishikawa,Niels Skals
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013144
Abstract: Moths use ultrasounds as well as pheromones for sexual communication. In closely related moth species, variations in ultrasounds and pheromones are likely to profoundly affect mate recognition, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and its Asian congeners, Ostrinia furnacalis and Ostrinia scapulalis, exhibit within-species and between-species variation in their pheromone communication. Recently, we reported ultrasound communication in O. furnacalis; however, variations in ultrasounds in the three congeners have not been addressed to date. Here we investigated features of ultrasound production and hearing in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, and compared them with those of O. furnacalis. As in O. furnacalis, males of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis produced ultrasounds during courtship by rubbing specialized scales on the wings against scales on the thorax. The covering of these scales with nail polish muffled the sounds and significantly reduced mating success in O. nubilalis, showing the importance of ultrasound signaling in mating. The ultrasounds produced by O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis were similar, consisting of long trains of pairs of pulses with a main energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths.
Thyroid gland cutaneous fistula secondary to a migratory fish bone: a case report
Toyoaki Ohbuchi, Takahisa Tabata, Khac-Hung Nguyen, Jun-ichi Ohkubo, Akiko Katoh, Hideaki Suzuki
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-140
Abstract: A 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with a two-month history of a painless cutaneous fistula in her anterior neck with pus discharge. Endoscopic examinations showed no abnormality, but computed tomography revealed a bone-density needle-shaped foreign body sticking out anteroinferior from the esophagus wall, penetrating through her left thyroid lobe and extending nearly to the anterior cervical skin. A migratory fish bone was suspected, and the foreign body was removed under general anesthetic, combined with a hemithyroidectomy. The injured esophageal mucosa was sutured and closed. Our patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and she was allowed oral food intake seven days after the surgery. No evidence of recurrence was seen over the postoperative follow-up period of 42?weeks.We should be aware that fish bone foreign bodies may migrate out of the upper digestive tract and lodge in the thyroid gland.
Fabrication of silica aerogel with $n$ = 1.08 for $e^+/μ^+$ separation in a threshold Cherenkov counter of the J-PARC TREK/E36 experiment
Makoto Tabata,Akihisa Toyoda,Hideyuki Kawai,Youichi Igarashi,Jun Imazato,Suguru Shimizu,Hirohito Yamazaki
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.06.002
Abstract: This study presents the development of hydrophobic silica aerogel for use as a radiator in threshold-type Cherenkov counters. These counters are to be used for separating positrons and positive muons produced by kaon decay in the J-PARC TREK/E36 experiment. We chose to employ aerogel with a refractive index of 1.08 to identify charged particles with momenta of approximately 240 MeV/$c$, and the radiator block shape was designed with a trapezoidal cross-section to fit the barrel region surrounding the kaon stopping target in the center of the TREK/E36 detector system. Including spares, we obtained 30 crack-free aerogel blocks segmented into two layers, each layer having a thickness of 2 cm and a length of 18 cm, to fill 12 counter modules. Optical measurements showed that the produced aerogel tiles had the required refractive indices and transparency.
Simple Detection Method of Biogenic Amines in Decomposed Fish by Intramolecular Excimer Fluorescence  [PDF]
Hirofumi Nishikawa, Tatsuya Tabata, Seiichi Kitani
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.37135
Abstract: Biogenic amines are known to have various biological functions such as not only neurotransmitter and cell proliferation but also food poisoning. Bacterially-decomposed amines such as histamine, agmatine, putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine cause allergic symptoms. We developed simple method for measurement of polyamine as indicator of food decomposition with a fluorometer by using 4-(1-Pyrene)butyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PSE). PSE reacts with primary and secondary amino moieties of polyamines and produces the intramolecular excimer fluorescence. Excimer fluorescence with broad peak at around 470 nm was clearly detected in linear type biogenic amines such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine at 10 mM. However neither histamine nor trimethylamine altered the fluorescence. Decomposed sardine and mackerel by improper storage showed stronger intensity than fresh ones. Comparing with OPA-method, PSE method was useful for screening biogenic amines present in food, esp. fish since the analysis was simple after one-step purification procedure. An inexpensive system which can rapidly detect biogenic amines from food is necessary in a medium and small-sized food business. The technique using excimer has potential to realize the high through-put screening system for evaluation of food freshness and is expected to bring the public interests such as food security and safety of consumer.
Growth of Gallium Oxide Nanowires by Pulsed Laser Deposition  [PDF]
Hiroyasu Yamahara, Munetoshi Seki, Hitoshi Tabata
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.24017
Abstract: We report on the synthesis of gallium oxide nanowires by pulsed laser deposition using a gold catalyst. In the vapor-liquid-solid process, gold thickness was the crucial parameter for deciding the morphology of nanowires. In the case of 1 nm thick gold, homogeneous nanowire growth was confirmed at temperatures of 700°C to 850°C. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline. In the cathode luminescence spectra, UV, blue, green and red emission peaks were observed, as reported in previous studies. As growth temperature was increased, the relative intensities of blue, green, and red emissions decreased. Thermal annealing treatments were effective in decreasing the blue, green and red emission peaks, suggesting that these emission peaks were associated with oxygen vacancies.
Assessment of the Water Quality in the Ariake Sea Using Principal Component Analysis  [PDF]
Toshinori Tabata, Kazuaki Hiramatsu, Masayoshi Harada
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.71003
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the condition of the Ariake Sea, Japan, which has been suffering from severe environmental issues for the past few decades. Water quality data have been generated from several points in this area for over 30 years by the Fukuoka, Saga, Kumamoto, and Nagasaki prefectures. In order to understand the characteristics of this sea, principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized using 11 water quality parameters; transparency, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate-phosphorus, (PO43--P) and silica. PCA conveyed the amount of nutrients originating from the river, the organic pollution level, and seasonal changes. Subsequently, principal component scores were calculated for each point. It was concluded that the Ariake Sea environment has been affected by two main factors, which are the nutrients from the Chikugo River and anticlockwise tidal residual flow. These two factors must be considered for the environmental restoration of the Ariake Sea.
Efficacy and Safety of Basal-Supported Prandial GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Therapy  [PDF]
Taichi Nagahisa, Mitsuhisa Tabata, Satoru Yamada
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2017.73007
Abstract:
Aim: To assess the safety and efficacy of basal-supported prandial GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy (BPT)* in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Patients with T2DM, who had previously received insulin injection therapy and who had had their treatment switched to BPT (liraglutide), were retrospectively recruited. The efficacy of BPT was assessed by determining changes in HbA1c, body weight and total daily insulin dose from baseline to 4 months after BPT initiation. Safety was assessed by comparing the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes at baseline and after 4 months. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze changes in parameters throughout the study period. Results: Twenty-nine patients, previously treated with basal-supported oral therapy (BOT), basal-bolus insulin, or pre-mixed insulin, were recruited. When analyzed together, there was no change in HbA1c throughout the study period, but body weight decreased (baseline 68.8 ± 13.2 kg vs. month 4 67.3 ± 13.1 kg; p < 0.001). Total daily insulin dose decreased after 4 months (baseline 24.4 ± 15.5 U/day vs. month 4 14.7 ± 9.2 U/day; p < 0.001), and there was no change in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes. Analysis was conducted within sub-groups based on previous treatment modality. In the BOT group, HbA1c decreased from baseline after 2 months and body weight did not change throughout the study period. In both the basal-bolus insulin group and the pre-mixed insulin group, HbA1c remained steady throughout and there was a decrease in body weight. No change in the frequency of hypoglycemia was observed in any of the sub-groups. Conclusion: BPT in T2DM was associated with weight loss without changes in glycemic control over 4 months, suggesting that it may be an effective and safe therapy.
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