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Introduction: The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale
(LSAS), used to assess the severity of social anxiety disorder (SAD), requires
considerable effort and time to complete. The aims of this study were: 1) to
investigate whether a visual analogue scale (VAS) could be linear with the LSAS
and substitute for the LSAS, 2) to relate such a VAS instrument to patient demographics.
Methods: Fifty SAD patients were assessed using the LSAS and VAS instruments
completed by both patients and doctors at the same session. We then drew
distributions and calculated the Spearman’s ρ and κ coefficient values (divided at
the median for each scale) between patient and doctor assessments. Next, each
pair among the scores for the LSAS, the patient VAS and the doctor VAS was
compared using Wilcoxon rank sum tests according to patient life profile data.
Results: Scatter plots of pairs of scores were obtained. Spearman’s ρ was 0.661 between the LSAS and the
patient VAS, 0.461 between the LSAS and the doctor VAS, and 0.494 between VAS
scores of patients and doctors. The κ coefficients were 0.501 between the LSAS and patient VAS, 0.251 between the
LSAS and doctor VAS, and 0.425 between patient VAS and doctor VAS (for all six,
p < 0.001). The Wilcoxon rank sum tests indicated a significant difference
between the groups with/ without “employment” (LSAS, patient/doctor VAS),
with/without “graduation from junior college/university” (doctor VAS) (p < 0.05)
and with/without marital history (the age of first consultation) (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: A patient VAS may substitute for the LSAS and offer the
versatility necessary to capture patient states and life profiles.
and community-level preparedness have been re-emphasized after recent major
earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan. The paper examines the prevalence and the
determinants of disaster preparedness among the residents of a provincial city
in Japan at both levels. Furthermore, it seeks to uncover the associations
between household- and community-level preparedness activities to test the
hypothesis that a complementary relationship exists between them. We used a
subset of a population-based household questionnaire survey of 4000 randomly
sampled households in Komoro City in the Nagano Prefecture of Japan in February
and March of 2011. The questionnaire included specific questions to measure
disaster the preparedness status at both the household and community levels.
The characteristics and associations of household- and community-level
preparedness were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models. We
found insufficient disaster preparedness at both household and community
levels. Older, female, and better educated household heads were associated with
better household preparedness, while length at residence, non-single status,
presence of an elderly household member, and farming occupations were
associated with better community preparedness. Households with one or more
household-level preparedness measures were more likely to receive community
assistance than those lacking them. The relationship between household and
community preparedness was not complementary. Hence, a large proportion of the
households were unprepared at both the community and household levels.