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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3012 matches for " Julie Stratford "
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The Idea of the Archipelago: Contemplating Island Relations
Elaine Stratford
Island Studies Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Creative, innovative, and timely research on islands and island futures is warranted and pressing, not least because island(er)s are poorly served by established tropes of them as subordinate to continents or mainlands. Opportunities exist to provide a more thoroughgoing account of island life and island relations, and the seven papers in this special issue address that task. In works that consider islands in the Timor Sea, the Caribbean, the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, and that span several different disciplinary frames—archival-historical, critical theoretical, literary, cultural, geopolitical, sociological and artistic—these papers evidence both the diversity of approach to thinking with the archipelago, and numerous points in common. Among the latter is an understanding that island relations are built on connection, assemblage, mobility, and multiplicity, and a commitment to critically examine the ways in which these entanglements affect and give effect to island life. The models of island relationality brought to light by this collective focus on the archipelago reveal new and diverse connections of island peoples with their physical and cultural environments, and with the world beyond; create spaces for growing resilience, association and engagement; and invite further study.
Le corpus de la sculpture de Cluny
Neil Stratford
Bulletin du Centre d’études Médiévales d’Auxerre , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/cem.12077
Abstract: Il n’est pas nécessaire de rappeler ici les circonstances qui ont voué Cluny III à la pioche des démolisseurs entre 1792 et 1820. Depuis 1988, les recherches ont été menées à Cluny par l’équipe de chercheurs afin de publier, non seulement, les vestiges encore conservés in situ dans les parties subsistantes de l’édifice, mais aussi les fragments sauvegardés lors de la destruction et conservés au musée Ochier, ainsi que ceux qui ont été découverts en fouille par l’américain Kenneth John Conant ...
Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Carcinoma of the Prostate: Outcome and Late Toxicity
David Thomson,Sophie Merrick,Ric Swindell,Joanna Coote,Kay Kelly,Julie Stratford,James Wylie,Richard Cowan,Tony Elliott,John Logue,Ananya Choudhury,Jacqueline Livsey
Prostate Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/450246
Abstract: Background. The benefit of dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in prostate cancer is not established. We report 5-year outcome and long-term toxicity data within a phase II clinical trial. Materials and Methods. 60 men with predominantly high-risk prostate cancer were treated. All patients received neoadjuvant hormone therapy, completing up to 6 months in total. Thirty patients were treated with 57?Gy in 19 fractions and 30 patients with 60?Gy in 20 fractions. Acute and 2-year toxicities were reported and patients followed longitudinally to assess 5 year outcomes and long-term toxicity. Toxicity was measured using RTOG criteria and LENT/SOMA questionnaire. Results. Median followup was 84 months. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 83% and biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) was 50% for 57?Gy. Five-year OS was 75% and bPFS 58% for 60?Gy. At 7 years, toxicity by RTOG criteria was acceptable with no grade 3 or above toxicity. Compared with baseline, there was no significant change in urinary symptoms at 2 or 7 years. Bowel symptoms were stable between 2 and 7 years. All patients continued to have significant sexual dysfunction. Conclusion. In high-risk prostate cancer, dose-escalated hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT results in encouraging outcomes and acceptable late toxicity. 1. Introduction Dose-escalated radiotherapy improves local and biochemical disease control in localised prostate cancer [1–4]. However, this is at the expense of increased late normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time [3–6].There is increasing evidence that the α/β ratio for prostate cancer may be low [7–9], and in one analysis of nearly 6000 patients the calculated α/β ratio was 1.4 [10]. This suggests that a hypofractionated regimen should be biologically advantageous. A shortened overall treatment time also provides benefits in terms of patient acceptability and health economics [11]. Our group has previously published data on patients treated with 50?Gy in 16 daily fractions (equivalent total dose of 66?Gy, assuming an α/β ratio for prostate cancer of 1.5) [12]. However, the biochemical outcome for patients with intermediate or high risk disease was inferior to dose-escalated series using 2?Gy per fraction [13]. This finding was replicated in a later study using low-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy [14]. Although there is evidence for improved bPFS with increasing doses of radiotherapy, no overall survival benefit has yet been demonstrated. Indeed, the MRC RT01 study showed equivalent overall
targetDP: an Abstraction of Lattice Based Parallelism with Portable Performance
Alan Gray,Kevin Stratford
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: To achieve high performance on modern computers, it is vital to map algorithmic parallelism to that inherent in the hardware. From an application developer's perspective, it is also important that code can be maintained in a portable manner across a range of hardware. Here we present targetDP (target Data Parallel), a lightweight programming layer that allows the abstraction of data parallelism for applications that employ structured grids. A single source code may be used to target both thread level parallelism (TLP) and instruction level parallelism (ILP) on either SIMD multi-core CPUs or GPU-accelerated platforms. targetDP is implemented via standard C preprocessor macros and library functions, can be added to existing applications incrementally, and can be combined with higher-level paradigms such as MPI. We present CPU and GPU performance results for a benchmark taken from the lattice Boltzmann application that motivated this work. These demonstrate not only performance portability, but also the optimisation resulting from the intelligent exposure of ILP.
Assessing sensitivity to change: choosing the appropriate change coefficient
Paul W Stratford, Daniel L Riddle
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-23
Abstract: The purpose of this report is to identify the conflict that arises when multiple change coefficients are applied to the same patient sample.Three families of change coefficients based on different assumptions concerning the sample composition are identified: (1) the sample is homogeneous with respect to change; (2) subgroups of patients who truly change by different amounts exist; (3) individual patients, many of whom truly change by different amounts exist. We present several analyses which illustrate a major conceptual conflict: the signal (a measure's true ability to detect change) for some of these coefficients appears in the noise term (measurement error) of the others.We speculate that this dilemma occurs as a result of insufficient preparatory work such as pilot studies to establish the likely change characteristic of the patient population of interest. Uncertainty in the choice of change coefficient could be overcome by conducting pilot studies to ascertain the likely change characteristic of the population of interest. Once the population's change characteristic is identified, the choice of change coefficient should be clear.The past two decades have seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of health status outcome measures [1-14]. Although the assessment of reliability and cross-sectional validity is straightforward, the same cannot be said about the evaluation of a measure's ability to detect change. Investigators have often expressed uncertainty in the choice of study design and analysis, and statements such as the following are common: "Because there is not yet agreement on the optimal design and analysis strategies for a responsiveness study, the authors evaluated the responsiveness of the FRI and RM-18 using two methods" [10]; "A variety of statistics have been used to assess responsiveness and no single one is superior" [2]; and "The purpose of this study was to determine if different indices of responsiveness provided similar ran
Does parallel item content on WOMAC's Pain and Function Subscales limit its ability to detect change in functional status?
Paul W Stratford, Deborah M Kennedy
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-5-17
Abstract: Two eight-item physical function scales were abstracted from the WOMAC's 17-item physical function subscale: one contained activities and themes that were duplicated on the pain subscale (SIMILAR-8); the other version avoided overlapping activities (DISSIMILAR-8). Factorial validity of the shortened measures was assessed on 310 patients awaiting hip or knee arthroplasty. The shortened measures' abilities to detect change were examined on a sample of 104 patients following primary hip or knee arthroplasty. The WOMAC and three performance measures that included activity specific pain assessments – 40 m walk test, stair test, and timed-up-and-go test – were administered preoperatively, within 16 days of hip or knee arthroplasty, and at an interval of greater than 20 days following the first post-surgical assessment. Standardized response means were used to quantify change.The SIMILAR-8 did not demonstrate factorial validity; however, the factorial structure of the DISSIMILAR-8 was supported. The time to complete the performance measures more than doubled between the preoperative and first postoperative assessments supporting the theory that lower extremity functional status diminished over this interval. The DISSIMILAR-8 detected this deterioration in functional status; however, no significant change was noted for the SIMILAR-8. The WOMAC pain scale demonstrated a slight reduction in pain and the performance specific pain measures did not reflect a change in pain. All measures showed substantial improvement over the second assessment interval.These findings support the hypothesis that activity overlap on the pain and function subscales plays a causal role in limiting the WOMAC physical function subscale's ability to detect change.At the Outcome Measures in Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT III) conference, pain and physical function were identified as the top two core outcomes for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee [1]. The WOMAC pain and physical fu
Using multimedia to enhance the accessibility of the learning environment for disabled students: reflections from the Skills for Access project
David Sloan,John Stratford,Peter Gregor
Research in Learning Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v14i1.10947
Abstract: As educators' awareness of their responsibilities towards ensuring the accessibility of the learning environment to disabled students increases, significant debate surrounds the implications of accessibility requirements on educational multimedia. There would appear to be widespread concern that the fundamental principles of creating accessible web-based materials seem at odds with the creative and innovative use of multimedia to support learning and teaching, as well as concerns over the time and cost of providing accessibility features that can hold back resource development and application. Yet, effective use of multimedia offers a way of enhancing the accessibility of the learning environment for many groups of disabled students. Using the development of ‘Skills for Access', a web resource supporting the dual aims of creating optimally accessible multimedia for learning, as an example, the attitudinal, practical and technical challenges facing the effective use of multimedia as an accessibility aid in a learning environment will be explored. Reasons why a holistic approach to accessibility may be the most effective in ensuring that multimedia reaches its full potential in enabling and supporting students in learning, regardless of any disability they may have, will be outlined and discussed.
Tuvalu, Sovereignty and Climate Change: Considering Fenua, the Archipelago and Emigration
Elaine Stratford,Carol Farbotko,Heather Lazrus
Island Studies Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Tuvalu is a Pacific atoll nation-state that has come to stand for predicaments implicating climate change, forced emigration and resettlement, and loss of territory and sovereignty. Legal and policy remedies seek to address such challenges by radically reframing how sovereignty is conceived. Drawing on literary and legal theory, we seek to extend such work in the terms of cultural geography and anthropology by considering how the archipelago and cultural practices known as fenua could be deployed as symbolic and material resources emphasizing mobility and connection, in contrast to normative ideas of sovereignty, whose orientation to territory imperils atoll states. Our fundamental argument is that legal and policy reforms addressing climate change emigration must be enriched by accounting for the emotional geographies that attend the changing real and conceptual borders of sovereignty and by creating alternative spaces of hope and action.
Bijels Containing Magnetic Particles: A Simulation Study
E. Kim,K. Stratford,M. E. Cates
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1021/la904809g
Abstract: Bicontinuous, interfacially jammed emulsion gels (bijels) represent a class of soft solid materials in which interpenetrating domains of two immiscible fluids are stabilized by an interfacial colloidal monolayer. Such structures can be formed by arrested spinodal decomposition from an initially single-phase colloidal suspension. Here we explore by lattice Boltzmann simulation the possible effects of using magnetic colloids in bijels. This may allow additional control over the structure, during or after formation, by application of a magnetic field or field gradient. These effects are modest for typical parameters based on the magnetic nanoparticles used in conventional ferrofluids, although significantly larger particles might be appropriate here. Field gradient effects, which are cumulative across a sample, could then allow a route for controlled breakdown of bijels as they do for particle-stabilized droplet emulsions.
Sliding periodic boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann and lattice kinetic equations
R. Adhikari,J. -C. Desplat,K. Stratford
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: We present a method to impose linear shear flow in discrete-velocity kinetic models of hydrodynamics through the use of sliding periodic boundary conditions. Our method is derived by an explicit coarse-graining of the Lees-Edwards boundary conditions for Couette flow in molecular dynamics, followed by a projection of the resulting equations onto the subspace spanned by the discrete velocities of the lattice Boltzmann method. The boundary conditions are obtained without resort to perturbative expansions or modifications of the discrete velocity equilibria, allowing our method to be applied to a wide class of lattice Boltzmann models. Our numerical results for the sheared hydrodynamics of a one-component isothermal fluid show excellent agreement with analytical results, while for a two-component fluid the results show a clear improvement over previous methods for introducing Lees-Edwards boundary conditions into lattice Boltzmann. Using our method, we obtain a dynamical steady state in a sheared spinodally decomposing two-dimensional fluid, under conditions where previous methods give spurious finite-size artifacts.
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