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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2939 matches for " Julie Reveillaud "
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Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
Paco Cárdenas,Joana R. Xavier,Julie Reveillaud,Christoffer Schander,Hans Tore Rapp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018318
Abstract: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution.
Phylogenetic Relationships among NE Atlantic Plocamionida Topsent (1927) (Porifera, Poecilosclerida): Under-Estimated Diversity in Reef Ecosystems
Julie Reveillaud,Rob van Soest,Sofie Derycke,Bernard Picton,Annelien Rigaux,Ann Vanreusel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016533
Abstract: Small and cryptic sponges associated with cold-water coral reefs are particularly numerous and challenging to identify, but their ecological and biochemical importance is likely to compete with megabenthic specimens.
Humpback Whale Populations Share a Core Skin Bacterial Community: Towards a Health Index for Marine Mammals?
Amy Apprill, Jooke Robbins, A. Murat Eren, Adam A. Pack, Julie Reveillaud, David Mattila, Michael Moore, Misty Niemeyer, Kathleen M. T. Moore, Tracy J. Mincer
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090785
Abstract: Microbes are now well regarded for their important role in mammalian health. The microbiology of skin – a unique interface between the host and environment - is a major research focus in human health and skin disorders, but is less explored in other mammals. Here, we report on a cross-population study of the skin-associated bacterial community of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and examine the potential for a core bacterial community and its variability with host (endogenous) or geographic/environmental (exogenous) specific factors. Skin biopsies or freshly sloughed skin from 56 individuals were sampled from populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific oceans and bacteria were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed the ubiquity and abundance of bacteria belonging to the Flavobacteria genus Tenacibaculum and the Gammaproteobacteria genus Psychrobacter across the whale populations. Scanning electron microscopy of skin indicated that microbial cells colonize the skin surface. Despite the ubiquity of Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., the relative composition of the skin-bacterial community differed significantly by geographic area as well as metabolic state of the animals (feeding versus starving during migration and breeding), suggesting that both exogenous and endogenous factors may play a role in influencing the skin-bacteria. Further, characteristics of the skin bacterial community from these free-swimming individuals were assembled and compared to two entangled and three dead individuals, revealing a decrease in the central or core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp.), as well as the emergence of potential pathogens in the latter cases. This is the first discovery of a cross-population, shared skin bacterial community. This research suggests that the skin bacteria may be connected to humpback health and immunity and could possibly serve as a useful index for health and skin disorder monitoring of threatened and endangered marine mammals.
Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.
Blow Nathan S,Salomon Robert N,Garrity Kerry,Reveillaud Isabelle
PLOS Pathogens , 2005,
Abstract: Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i) death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii) flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii) ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.
Phonological and Spelling Mistakes among Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children Learning Two Different Languages: Greek vs English  [PDF]
Georgia Andreou, Julie Baseki
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.38089
Abstract: The aim of our study was to examine the phonological and spelling errors made by dyslexic and non-dyslexic children in two different languages, one (Greek, L1) much more transparent than the other (English, L2). For these purposes, our subjects (poor spellers officially diagnosed as dyslexics) composed two picture elicited narratives, one in Greek and one in English with the aid of Script Log, an online recording tool for experimental research on the process of writing. Our results showed that dyslexics generally made statistically significant (p < 0.05) more mistakes in both languages in comparison to non-dyslexics and statistically significant more phonological mistakes in English than in Greek. In addition, dyslexics made a great number of spelling mistakes in both languages, though of different nature depending on the language in which they occurred. Thus, the dyslexics in our study presented different error profiles in English and in Greek and implications are made that instruction methods should be language specific.
Exploring Second Life as a Learning Environment for Computer Programming  [PDF]
Atul Sajjanhar, Julie Faulkner
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.51010
Abstract:

Computer programming can be challenging for beginners because of the need to understand abstract programming concepts. In this paper, we study the use of the Second Life (SL) virtual world for learning computer programming concepts. We conduct an empirical study for learning computer programming in SL by addressing affordances of SL for experiential problem-based learning pedagogies. We present preliminary findings, the promises and the limitations of Second Life as an environment for learning computer programming.

An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationships between Personality Characteristics and the Perceptions of Virtual Merchandising  [PDF]
Al Bellamy, Julie Becker
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.33019
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between individual’s perception of presence within a virtual merchandising environment and their attitudes toward virtual shopping. Symbolic interactionism was used as the theoretical framework. Utilizing four of the Big Five personality framework, it also examined if individual’s personality affected their attitude toward virtual shopping as well as the relationship between presence and attitudes toward online shopping. The study was conducted among 81 students enrolled in an undergraduate Apparel Textiles and Merchandising Program at a university located in Southeastern Michigan. Results indicate a positive correlation between perceptions of presence and individual willingness to make purchases within an online shopping environment as well as their overall satisfaction with shopping in such an environment. Two of the personality factors from the Big Five personality framework, neuroticism and extroversion, were shown to moderate these relationships. Overall, the study confirmed the idea that individual personality traits affect one’s disposition towards shopping within a virtual environment.
Technical Adequacy of the Student Protective Factors Screening Scale (SPF-7) as a Universal Screening Tool  [PDF]
Julie Q. Morrison
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.67081
Abstract: Universal screening is a critical foundation for school-based prevention and early intervention. This study examined the technical adequacy of the SPF-7, an instrument designed to assist school personnel in the early identification of students at-risk for emotional and behavioral concerns. The SPF-7 differs from other measures used in identifying emotionally and behaviorally at-risk students, as the SPF-7 focuses on protective factors rather than risk factors. The results of this study suggest that the SPF-7 has adequate test-retest reliability and criterion validity, but limited inter-rater agreement. The SPF-7 is a potentially promising tool for identifying students in need of support within a multi-tiered system of increasingly intensive interventions.
Aper?u d'une anthropologie du vaccin: regards sur l'éthique d'une pratique humanitaire
Laplante, Julie;Bruneau, Julie;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702003000500005
Abstract: two interrelated universal practices, humanitarian medicine and immunization, pose certain ethical problems. to shed light on the matter, we present some historical reference points indispensable to an understanding of contemporary vaccination programs, focusing especially on certain anthropological issues posed by this practice as far as representations of the body and of health within populations. two examples of humanitarian vaccination practices, one used among an autochthonous population and the other among young people on the street, serve to illustrate some thoughts on management of the body and on the resistance displayed by these groups. we then propose paths to follow in re-examining the ethics of vaccination.
Aper u d'une anthropologie du vaccin: regards sur l'éthique d'une pratique humanitaire
Laplante Julie,Bruneau Julie
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2003,
Abstract: Deux pratiques interreliées, la médecine humanitaire et l'immunisation à caractère universel, posent certains problèmes d'éthique. Afin de jeter un peu de lumière sur la question, nous présenterons quelques balises historiques indispensables à la compréhension des programmes contemporains de vaccination et nous soulèverons certains problèmes anthropologiques que pose cette pratique au plan des représentations du corps et de la santé dans les populations. Deux exemples de pratiques humanitaires de vaccination, l'une exercée auprès d'une population autochtone et l'autre auprès de jeunes de la rue, permettent d'illustrer une réflexion portant sur la gestion des corps et sur la résistance démontrée par ceux-ci. Nous proposerons ensuite des pistes à suivre en vue de revoir l'éthique de la vaccination.
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