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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13077 matches for " Julie Hicks Patrick "
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Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and dna-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced cns alterations
Hicks Steven D,Lewis Lambert,Ritchie Julie,Burke Patrick
BMC Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-128
Abstract: Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Results Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP) assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1) was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5) showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left parietal supramarginal gyrus and neuropsychological measures. Conclusions These results demonstrate that alcohol-induced changes in genes related to proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair are observable in the peripheral blood and may serve as a useful biomarker for CNS structural damage and functional performance deficits in human AUD subjects.
Decision Making Processes and Outcomes
Julie Hicks Patrick,Jenessa C. Steele,S. Melinda Spencer
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/367208
Abstract: The primary aim of this study was to examine the contributions of individual characteristics and strategic processing to the prediction of decision quality. Data were provided by 176 adults, ages 18 to 93 years, who completed computerized decision-making vignettes and a battery of demographic and cognitive measures. We examined the relations among age, domain-specific experience, working memory, and three measures of strategic information search to the prediction of solution quality using a 4-step hierarchical linear regression analysis. Working memory and two measures of strategic processing uniquely contributed to the variance explained. Results are discussed in terms of potential advances to both theory and intervention efforts. 1. Introduction 1.1. Decision Making Processes and Outcomes A significant body of research has examined problem solving and decision making performance in adulthood (see [1, 2] for reviews). Both problem solving and decision making are concerned with the ways in which people interpret problems, form goals, search information, and combine information to arrive at solutions. Researchers often employ think-aloud and other process-tracing techniques to investigate the processes governing information search and cessation [3, 4]. The extant literature demonstrates that relative to younger and middle-aged adults, older adults approach decision making with different goals, apply different heuristics, seek different amounts and types of information in the predecision phase, and offer different decisions (e.g., [4–6]). Research has examined several possible mechanisms to explain this age difference, including the role of cognitive resources (e.g., [5, 7]), the social context and personal experience [8, 9], affective context [10], and the decision domain [11]. Sophisticated studies have examined these factors individually and in combination [12]. For many decision tasks, basic and intermediate cognitive skills such as working memory and speed of processing often are the strongest predictor of decision outcome [13]. Process-tracing techniques may allow a more thorough examination of task performance and strategic processing [3, 4, 14, 15]. In the standard decision making task, materials are structured to reflect those available in the real-world, similar to the ecologically-rich social vignettes used in the everyday problem solving approach. Although in actual real-world information searches, people are able to view all of the available information simultaneously, an advantage to the process-tracing technique is that one is able to
Involvement of Eukaryotic Small RNA Pathways in Host Defense and Viral Pathogenesis
Julie Hicks,Hsiao-Ching Liu
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5112659
Abstract: Post-transcriptional gene regulation by small RNAs is now established as an important branch of the gene regulatory system. Many different classes of small RNAs have been discovered; among these are short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs). Though differences in the processing and function of small RNAs exist between plants and animals, both groups utilize small RNA-mediated gene regulation in response to pathogens. Host encoded miRNAs and siRNAs are generated from viral RNA function in host defense and pathogenic resistance in plants. In animals, miRNAs are key regulators in both immune system development and in immune function. Pathogens, in particular viruses, have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host’s small RNA-mediated regulatory system. Overall, small RNAs are a major component of host defense and immunity in eukaryotes. The goal of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of eukaryotic small RNA pathways in host defense and viral pathogenesis.
Characterization of the microRNAome in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infected Macrophages
Julie A. Hicks, Dongwan Yoo, Hsiao-Ching Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082054
Abstract: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family, is the causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). PRRS is characterized by late term abortions and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. Small regulatory RNAs termed microRNA (miRNA) are associated with gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are known to play many diverse and complex roles in viral infections. To discover the impact of PRRSV infections on the cellular miRNAome, Illumina deep sequencing was used to construct small RNA expression profiles from in vitro cultured PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). A total of forty cellular miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed within the first 48 hours post infection (hpi). The expression of six miRNAs, miR-30a-3p, miR-132, miR-27b*, miR-29b, miR-146a and miR-9-2, were altered at more than one time point. Target gene identification suggests that these miRNAs are involved in regulating immune signaling pathways, cytokine, and transcription factor production. The most highly repressed miRNA at 24 hpi was miR-147. A miR-147 mimic was utilized to maintain miR-147 levels in PRRSV-infected PAMs. PRRSV replication was negatively impacted by high levels of miR-147. Whether down-regulation of miR-147 is directly induced by PRRSV or if it is part of the cellular response and PRRSV indirectly benefits remains to be determined. No evidence could be found of PRRSV-encoded miRNAs. Overall, the present study has revealed that a large and diverse group of miRNAs are expressed in swine alveolar macrophages and that the expression of a subset of these miRNAs is altered in PRRSV infected macrophages.
Regeneration of Hyaline Cartilage Using a Mechanically-Tuned Chondrocyte-Seeded Biomimetic Tissue-Engineered 3D Scaffold: A Theoretical Approach  [PDF]
Addie Hicks
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.57074

The limited ability of cartilage tissue to repair itself poses a functionally impairing health problem. While many treatment methods are available, full restoration of the tissue to its original state is rare. Often, complete joint replacement surgery is required to obtain long-term relief. Tissue engineering approaches, however, provide new opportunities for cartilage replacement. They seek to provide mechanisms to repair or replace lost tissue or function. A theoretical method is presented here for regenerating hyaline cartilage in vitro using a chondrocyte-seeded three-dimensional biomimetic engineered scaffold with mechanical properties similar to those occurring naturally. The scaffold composition, type II collagen, aggrecan, hyaluronan, hyaluronan binding protein (for link protein), and BMP-7, were chosen to encourage synthesis of hyaline cartilage by providing a more native environment and signaling cue for the seeded chondrocytes. The scaffold components mimic the macrofibrillar collagen network found in articular cartilage. Type II collagen provides tensile strength, and aggrecan, the predominant proteoglycan, provides compressive strength.

In Vitro Anti-Diabetic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Bioactive Fractions Present in Meriandra dianthera, Aloe camperi and a Polyherb  [PDF]
Mussie Sium, Patrick Kareru, Beatrice Kiage-Mokua, Kaushal Sood, John Langley, Julie Herniman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.83037
Abstract: This paper reports the in vitro anti-diabetic profile of certain medicinal plants traditionally used in Eritrea for the management of type 2 diabetes. The crude methanolic extracts and fractions of Meriandra dianthera, Aloe camperi, a Polyherb and their fractions were investigated. The in vitro screening of the crude extracts has generally elicited a dose dependent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities. M. dianthera displayed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 0.074 ± 0.032 mg/mL) at the highest concentration tested (0.800 mg/mL) relative to A. camperi, the Polyherb and Acarbose (IC50: 0.37 ± 0.052, 0.56 ± 0.024 and 0.55 ± 0.029 respectively). The α-glucosidase inhibition activities of A. camperi and M. dianthera, except for the Polyherb and Acarbose, were significantly different (P < 0.05) at various ranges of concentrations (0.025 - 0.800 mg/mL). The percentage α-amylase inhibitions of M. dianthera,
The Financial Credit Profile of Low-Income Families Seeking Assets
Julie Birkenmaier,Jamie Curley,Patrick Kelley
Journal of Financial Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.4148/jft.v2i2.1512
Abstract: Individual Development Account (IDA) participants need strong credit histories to access affordable credit for their IDA asset purchase. Using a convenience sample of IDA participants (N = 188) recruited from the St. Louis, MO area, this study presents credit profile data addressing utilization of alternative and mainstream financial services, amount of debt carried, and elements needed to improve credit. This study presents data on the credit profile of IDA participants (N = 188). Compared to national IDA participants, participants in this study had higher incomes, were more educated, and had a higher rate of being “banked.” The sample was not overburdened with their monthly debt. However, participants also utilize higher-cost alternative financial services, such as payday lenders and pawnshops, at similar rates to other low-income families and are beginning their IDA programs with low credit scores and poor credit history. Participant needs for credit assistance is discussed, and practice, policy, and research implications are provided.
Star Formation in Emission-Line Galaxies Between Redshifts of 0.8 and 1.6
Erin K. S. Hicks,Matthew A. Malkan,Harry I. Teplitz,Patrick J. McCarthy,Lin Yan
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344224
Abstract: Optical spectra of 14 emission-line galaxies representative of the 1999 NICMOS parallel grism Ha survey of McCarthy et al. are presented. Of the 14, 9 have emission lines confirming the redshifts found in the grism survey. The higher resolution of our optical spectra improves the redshift accuracy by a factor of 5. The [O II]/Ha values of our sample are found to be more than two times lower than expected from Jansen et al. This [O II]/Ha ratio discrepancy is most likely explained by additional reddening in our Ha-selected sample [on average, as much as an extra E(B-V) = 0.6], as well as to a possible stronger dependence of the [O II]/Ha ratio on galaxy luminosity than is found in local galaxies. The result is that star formation rates (SFRs) calculated from [O II]3727 emission, uncorrected for extinction, are found to be on average 4 +/- 2 times lower than the SFRs calculated from Ha emission. Classification of emission-line galaxies as starburst or Seyfert galaxies based on comparison of the ratios [O II]/Hb and [Ne III]3869/Hb is discussed. New Seyfert 1 diagnostics using the Ha line luminosity, H-band absolute magnitude, and Ha equivalent widths are also presented. One galaxy is classified as a Seyfert 1 based on its broad emission lines, implying a comoving number density for Seyfert 1s of 2.5{+5.9, -2.1} times 10^{-5} Mpc^{-3}. This commoving number density is a factor of 2.4{+5.5,-2.0} times higher than estimated by other surveys.
A Terraced Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Susceptometer with Sub-Micron Pickup Loops
Nicholas C. Koshnick,Martin E. Huber,Julie A. Bert,Clifford W. Hicks,Jeff Large,Hal Edwards,Kathryn A. Moler
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3046098
Abstract: Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) can have excellent spin sensitivity depending on their magnetic flux noise, pick-up loop diameter, and distance from the sample. We report a family of scanning SQUID susceptometers with terraced tips that position the pick-up loops 300 nm from the sample. The 600 nm - 2 um pickup loops, defined by focused ion beam, are integrated into a 12-layer optical lithography process allowing flux-locked feedback, in situ background subtraction and optimized flux noise. These features enable a sensitivity of ~70 electron spins per root Hertz at 4K.
Phylogenetic Diversity, Host-Specificity and Community Profiling of Sponge-Associated Bacteria in the Northern Gulf of Mexico
Patrick M. Erwin, Julie B. Olson, Robert W. Thacker
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026806
Abstract: Background Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6%) of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil). Conclusions/Significance The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the ambient environment, allowed us to differentiate resident symbionts from potentially transient or prey bacteria. Pairing replicated clone library construction with rapid community profiling via T-RFLP analyses will greatly facilitate future studies of sponge-microbe symbioses.
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