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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4654 matches for " Julia; "
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The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

How to React to the Subprime Crisis? - The Impact of an Interest Rate Freeze on Residential Mortgage Backed  [PDF]
Julia Hein, Thomas Weber
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24035
Abstract: Several policy options have been discussed to mitigate the current subprime mortgage crisis. This paper analyses an interest rate freeze on adjustable rate mortgages as one possible reaction. In particular, the implications on Residential Mortgage Backed Securities (RMBS) are studied. We examine shifts in the underlying portfolio’s discounted cash flow distributions as well as changes in the payment profile of RMBS-tranches. We show that the positive effects of a rate freeze, e.g. less foreclosures and a stabilizing housing market, can outweigh the negative effect of lower interest income such that investors might be better off.
Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity  [PDF]
Julia Schuler, Sibylle Brunner
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.21001
Abstract: The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. Two correlative field studies with rehabilitation patients (Study 1) and Nordic Walkers (Study 2) were conducted to test the hypotheses. Participants’ incentives of physical activity were measured at the beginning of exercising and two weeks (Study 1; T2) and three months (Study 2; T2) later. At T2, participants were asked for their current physical activity. Both studies showed a greater change of activity-related incentives than purpose-related incentives. Furthermore, change in activity-related incentives was more predictive of the maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. The results showed the important role of activity-related incentives in maintenance of physical activity. The theoretical contribution to physical activity maintenance research and practical implications for health promotion programs were discussed.
A Survey of Control Structures for Reconfigurable Petri Nets  [PDF]
Julia Padberg, Kathrin Hoffmann
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.32002
Abstract: Software systems are increasingly executed in dynamic infrastructures. These infrastructures are dynamic as they are themselves subject to change as they support various applications that may or may not share some of the resources. Dynamic software systems become more and more important, but are difficult to handle. Modeling and simulating dynamic systems requires the representation of their processes and the system changes within one model. To that effect, reconfigurable Petri nets consist of a Petri net and a set of rules that can modify the Petri net. Their main feature is the capability to model complex coordination behavior in dynamically adapting infrastructures. The interplay of both levels of dynamic behavior requires a very precise description, so the specification when and which rules are to be applied plays a crucial role for the convenient use of reconfigurable nets. We differentiate several types of reconfigurable Petri nets and present a survey of control structure for these types, reconfigurable Petri nets. These control structures either concern the infrastructure, i.e., the rules and transformations or the system part, i.e., the firing behavior, or both. They are introduced by a short characterization and illustrated by examples. We state the results for various Petri net types and the tools supporting the different control structures.
Raising a Child with Down Syndrome: Do Preferred Coping Strategies Explain Differences in Parental Health?  [PDF]
Tatjana Alexander, Julia Walendzik
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.71005
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine coping strategies which may represent important personal resources and have a buffering effect in preventing mental health problems in parents of children with Down syndrome. Forty-nine parents of children with Down syndrome completed self-administrated measures of psychological and physical health problems, and coping behaviour, using several established measuring instruments. According to the hierarchical regression analyses, parents who often used regenerative coping strategies, and who experienced positive personal changes in terms of posttraumatic growth suffered from less anxiety and somatisation symptoms, whereas dysfunctional coping was the best predictor for parental depression and physical symptoms. Regenerative coping mediated between parental tendency to recognize their emotional needs and somatisation symptoms. Intervention programs for families of children with Down syndrome may benefit if they address parents’ reflection about their feelings, foster posttraumatic growth processes, and impart knowledge about long-term regenerative coping strategies.
LPS-Induced Proliferation and Chemokine Secretion from BEAS-2B Cells  [PDF]
Eugen J. Verspohl, Julia Podlogar
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32024
Abstract: The surface antigen CD14 plays an important role in innate immunity, serving as a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation, NFκB activation, and chemokine secretion of BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, after LPS stimulation, and some details of inVolved signaling. The presence of CD14 was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured with a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. sCD14, RANTES, and IL-8 concentrations in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA. BEAS-2B cells express CD14 on their surface and secrete soluble CD14 into the supernatant. Cells react on LPS with increased proliferation, activation of NFκB, and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and RANTES, which proves the functionality of the CD14 receptor. Neither CD14 nor sCD14 are regulated by LPS. Specific inhibitors of various intracellular signaling pathways diminish the LPS-induced proliferation and IL-8 secretion: Thus MAP-Kinases p38 and JNK, tyrosine kinases, and PI3-kinase are involved in the signaling cascade from the LPS-CD14-complex on the cell surface to the increased cell proliferation and expression of IL-8; furthermore, ERK 1/2, IRAK 1/4, and the NFκB pathway are inVolved in the latter. The data show the existence and functionality of CD14 receptors on BEAS-2B cells and elucidate the signaling pathways inVolved. LPS is able to increase cell prolife-ration, various cytokines which are dependent on endogenous CD14. Three MAPK pathways, PI3 kinase and tyrosine kinase may be involved. Also CD14 is present/involved which was controversial.
Impact of Adaptive Quizzing as a Practice and Remediation Strategy to Prepare for the NCLEX-RN  [PDF]
Susan Malkemes, Julia C. Phelan
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.711093

National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) outcomes are extremely important to nursing institutions and students for myriad reasons. For students, the NCLEX-RN represents one of the final milestones to conquer before entering a nursing career. Nursing programs monitor NCLEX-RN pass rates as an important gauge of program quality and minimum levels frequently must be met. This study explored the implementation of an adaptive quizzing and learning system as part of an NCLEX-RN preparation strategy designed to increase student engagement and subsequent success on the NCLEX-RN. The adaptive quizzing system was used as part of an ongoing, proactive strategy to student preparation. This strategy is in contrast to the practice of using high-stakes exams scores to try and predict student NCLEX-RN outcomes. In the latter case there is mixed evidence on how scores relate to remediation and moving students toward success based on evidence of need. The study school required students (N = 54) to take regular, adaptive practice quizzes throughout their final year in the nursing program. Students were also given the HESI E2 in their final semester and all but one student achieved the target threshold with a range of scores (772 to 1028). Despite this variability, 90.7% of the students in the study group passed the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt, with a pass rate of 98% when considering those who passed on the second attempt. NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school increased by 11.55% following the implementation of the system and in the second year of implementation (the data analyzed for this study) increased an additional 3.95% from the previous year. With many factors to consider, we cannot say, unequivocally, that using the AQS resulted in an increase in NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school. Findings from this retrospective study do, however, support the use of an adaptive quizzing system as a component of the NCLEX-RN preparation strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Existence and Stability Estimate for the Solution of the Ageing Hereditary Linear Viscoelasticity Problem
Julia Orlik
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/828315
Abstract: The paper is concerned with the existence and stability of weak (variational) solutionsfor the problem of the quasistatic evolution of a viscoelastic material undermixed inhomogenous Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions. The main noveltyof the paper relies in dealing with continuous-in-time weak solutions and allowing nonconvolution and weak-singular Volterra's relaxation kernels.
Why We Conform
Julia Fischer
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000277
El milagro en la construcción del culto a Nuestra Se?ora de Copacabana ( Virreinato del Perú, 1582-1651)
Estudios atacame?os , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-10432010000100004
Abstract: the aim of this paper is to trace the process of the cult of the virgin of copacabana in the viceroyalty of peru, focusing on the role it played in the miracle, and from wich place, or places, the cult was developed and re-developed. for this, we attempt to identify the actors involved in the creation and dissemination of the cult and their respective interests and objectives, and also, who were involved in the miraculous events attributed to the virgin image.
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