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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4655 matches for " Julia Szendroedi "
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Skeletal Muscle Phosphodiester Content Relates to Body Mass and Glycemic Control
Julia Szendroedi, Albrecht Ingo Schmid, Marek Chmelik, Martin Krssak, Peter Nowotny, Thomas Prikoszovich, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Wolzt, Werner Waldh?usl, Michael Roden
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021846
Abstract: Background Aging and insulin resistance have been related to reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Muscular phosphodiesters (PDE) are comprised of metabolites of phospholipid breakdown and may reflect membrane damage. We aimed to test the hypothesis that myocellular PDE are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and correlate inversely with mitochondrial ATP turnover. Methods A Cross-sectional study in the Clinical Research Facility of an University hospital was performed. 10 nonobese middle-aged patients with T2D, 10 healthy humans matched for sex, age and physical activity index (CONm) and 18 young healthy humans (CONy) were included. Myocellular PDE and unidirectional flux through ATP synthase (fATP) were measured with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Intramyocellular (IMCL) and hepatocellular lipid deposition (HCL) were quantified with 1H MRS. Insulin sensitivity (Rd) was assessed from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests in 10 T2D, 10 CONm and 11 CONy. Results During fasting, T2D and CONm had 1.5 fold greater PDE than CONy (2.8±0.2, 2.5±0.2, 1.7±0.1 mmol/l, P = 0.004). Stimulation by insulin did not affect PDE in any group. PDE correlated negatively with Rd (r = ?0.552, p<0.005) and fATP (r = ?0.396, p<0.05) and positively with age (r = 0.656, p<0.001) and body mass (r = 0.597, p<0.001). PDE also related positively to HbA1c (r = 0.674, p<0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (r = 0.629, p<0.001) within T2D and across all participants. Conclusions Muscular PDE concentrations associate with age, lower resting mitochondrial activity and insulin resistance, which is determined mainly by body mass and glycemia.
Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthesis and Glucose Transport/Phosphorylation in Type 2 Diabetes
Julia Szendroedi,Albrecht I Schmid,Marek Chmelik,Christian Toth,Attila Brehm,Martin Krssak,Peter Nowotny,Michael Wolzt,Werner Waldhausl,Michael Roden
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040154
Abstract: Background Muscular insulin resistance is frequently characterized by blunted increases in glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) reflecting impaired glucose transport/phosphorylation. These abnormalities likely relate to excessive intramyocellular lipids and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that alterations in insulin action and mitochondrial function should be present even in nonobese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Findings We measured G-6-P, ATP synthetic flux (i.e., synthesis) and lipid contents of skeletal muscle with 31P/1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ten patients with T2DM and in two control groups: ten sex-, age-, and body mass-matched elderly people; and 11 younger healthy individuals. Although insulin sensitivity was lower in patients with T2DM, muscle lipid contents were comparable and hyperinsulinemia increased G-6-P by 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%–99%) in all groups. Patients with diabetes had 27% lower fasting ATP synthetic flux compared to younger controls (p = 0.031). Insulin stimulation increased ATP synthetic flux only in controls (younger: 26%, 95% CI 13%–42%; older: 11%, 95% CI 2%–25%), but failed to increase even during hyperglycemic hyperinsulinemia in patients with T2DM. Fasting free fatty acids and waist-to-hip ratios explained 44% of basal ATP synthetic flux. Insulin sensitivity explained 30% of insulin-stimulated ATP synthetic flux. Conclusions Patients with well-controlled T2DM feature slightly lower flux through muscle ATP synthesis, which occurs independently of glucose transport /phosphorylation and lipid deposition but is determined by lipid availability and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal despite normal glucose transport/phosphorylation suggests further abnormalities mainly in glycogen synthesis in these patients.
Reduced Basal ATP Synthetic Flux of Skeletal Muscle in Patients with Previous Acromegaly
Julia Szendroedi, Elisabeth Zwettler, Albrecht Ingo Schmid, Marek Chmelik, Giovanni Pacini, Gertrud Kacerovsky, Gerhard Smekal, Peter Nowotny, Oswald Wagner, Christoph Schnack, Guntram Schernthaner, Klaus Klaushofer, Michael Roden
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003958
Abstract: Background Impaired mitochondrial function and ectopic lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and liver have been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. As growth hormone (GH) excess can reduce insulin sensitivity, we examined the impact of previous acromegaly (AM) on glucose metabolism, lipid storage and muscular ATP turnover. Participants and Methods Seven AM (4f/3 m, age: 46±4 years, BMI: 28±1 kg/m2) and healthy volunteers (CON: 3f/4 m, 43±4 years, 26±2 kg/m2) matched for age and body mass underwent oral glucose testing for assessment of insulin sensitivity (OGIS) and ?-cell function (adaptation index, ADAP). Whole body oxidative capacity was measured with indirect calorimetry and spiroergometry. Unidirectional ATP synthetic flux (fATP) was assessed from 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of calf muscle. Lipid contents of tibialis anterior (IMCLt) and soleus muscles (IMCLs) and liver (HCL) were measured with 1H MRS. Results Despite comparable GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin sensitivity, AM had ~85% lower ADAP (p<0.01) and ~21% reduced VO2max (p<0.05). fATP was similarly ~25% lower in AM (p<0.05) and related positively to ADAP (r = 0.744, p<0.01), but negatively to BMI (r = ?0.582, p<0.05). AM had ~3fold higher HCL (p<0.05) while IMCLt and IMCLs did not differ between the groups. Conclusions Humans with a history of acromegaly exhibit reduced insulin secretion, muscular ATP synthesis and oxidative capacity but elevated liver fat content. This suggests that alterations in ?-cell function and myocellular ATP production may persist despite normalization of GH secretion after successful treatment of acromegaly.
The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011
Abstract:

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

How to React to the Subprime Crisis? - The Impact of an Interest Rate Freeze on Residential Mortgage Backed  [PDF]
Julia Hein, Thomas Weber
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.24035
Abstract: Several policy options have been discussed to mitigate the current subprime mortgage crisis. This paper analyses an interest rate freeze on adjustable rate mortgages as one possible reaction. In particular, the implications on Residential Mortgage Backed Securities (RMBS) are studied. We examine shifts in the underlying portfolio’s discounted cash flow distributions as well as changes in the payment profile of RMBS-tranches. We show that the positive effects of a rate freeze, e.g. less foreclosures and a stabilizing housing market, can outweigh the negative effect of lower interest income such that investors might be better off.
Dynamic Activity-Related Incentives for Physical Activity  [PDF]
Julia Schuler, Sibylle Brunner
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.21001
Abstract: The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. Two correlative field studies with rehabilitation patients (Study 1) and Nordic Walkers (Study 2) were conducted to test the hypotheses. Participants’ incentives of physical activity were measured at the beginning of exercising and two weeks (Study 1; T2) and three months (Study 2; T2) later. At T2, participants were asked for their current physical activity. Both studies showed a greater change of activity-related incentives than purpose-related incentives. Furthermore, change in activity-related incentives was more predictive of the maintenance of physical activity than change in purpose-related incentives. The results showed the important role of activity-related incentives in maintenance of physical activity. The theoretical contribution to physical activity maintenance research and practical implications for health promotion programs were discussed.
A Survey of Control Structures for Reconfigurable Petri Nets  [PDF]
Julia Padberg, Kathrin Hoffmann
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.32002
Abstract: Software systems are increasingly executed in dynamic infrastructures. These infrastructures are dynamic as they are themselves subject to change as they support various applications that may or may not share some of the resources. Dynamic software systems become more and more important, but are difficult to handle. Modeling and simulating dynamic systems requires the representation of their processes and the system changes within one model. To that effect, reconfigurable Petri nets consist of a Petri net and a set of rules that can modify the Petri net. Their main feature is the capability to model complex coordination behavior in dynamically adapting infrastructures. The interplay of both levels of dynamic behavior requires a very precise description, so the specification when and which rules are to be applied plays a crucial role for the convenient use of reconfigurable nets. We differentiate several types of reconfigurable Petri nets and present a survey of control structure for these types, reconfigurable Petri nets. These control structures either concern the infrastructure, i.e., the rules and transformations or the system part, i.e., the firing behavior, or both. They are introduced by a short characterization and illustrated by examples. We state the results for various Petri net types and the tools supporting the different control structures.
Raising a Child with Down Syndrome: Do Preferred Coping Strategies Explain Differences in Parental Health?  [PDF]
Tatjana Alexander, Julia Walendzik
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.71005
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine coping strategies which may represent important personal resources and have a buffering effect in preventing mental health problems in parents of children with Down syndrome. Forty-nine parents of children with Down syndrome completed self-administrated measures of psychological and physical health problems, and coping behaviour, using several established measuring instruments. According to the hierarchical regression analyses, parents who often used regenerative coping strategies, and who experienced positive personal changes in terms of posttraumatic growth suffered from less anxiety and somatisation symptoms, whereas dysfunctional coping was the best predictor for parental depression and physical symptoms. Regenerative coping mediated between parental tendency to recognize their emotional needs and somatisation symptoms. Intervention programs for families of children with Down syndrome may benefit if they address parents’ reflection about their feelings, foster posttraumatic growth processes, and impart knowledge about long-term regenerative coping strategies.
LPS-Induced Proliferation and Chemokine Secretion from BEAS-2B Cells  [PDF]
Eugen J. Verspohl, Julia Podlogar
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32024
Abstract: The surface antigen CD14 plays an important role in innate immunity, serving as a pattern recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation, NFκB activation, and chemokine secretion of BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, after LPS stimulation, and some details of inVolved signaling. The presence of CD14 was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured with a [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. sCD14, RANTES, and IL-8 concentrations in cell supernatants were measured by ELISA. BEAS-2B cells express CD14 on their surface and secrete soluble CD14 into the supernatant. Cells react on LPS with increased proliferation, activation of NFκB, and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory chemotactic cytokines IL-8 and RANTES, which proves the functionality of the CD14 receptor. Neither CD14 nor sCD14 are regulated by LPS. Specific inhibitors of various intracellular signaling pathways diminish the LPS-induced proliferation and IL-8 secretion: Thus MAP-Kinases p38 and JNK, tyrosine kinases, and PI3-kinase are involved in the signaling cascade from the LPS-CD14-complex on the cell surface to the increased cell proliferation and expression of IL-8; furthermore, ERK 1/2, IRAK 1/4, and the NFκB pathway are inVolved in the latter. The data show the existence and functionality of CD14 receptors on BEAS-2B cells and elucidate the signaling pathways inVolved. LPS is able to increase cell prolife-ration, various cytokines which are dependent on endogenous CD14. Three MAPK pathways, PI3 kinase and tyrosine kinase may be involved. Also CD14 is present/involved which was controversial.
Impact of Adaptive Quizzing as a Practice and Remediation Strategy to Prepare for the NCLEX-RN  [PDF]
Susan Malkemes, Julia C. Phelan
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.711093
Abstract:

National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) outcomes are extremely important to nursing institutions and students for myriad reasons. For students, the NCLEX-RN represents one of the final milestones to conquer before entering a nursing career. Nursing programs monitor NCLEX-RN pass rates as an important gauge of program quality and minimum levels frequently must be met. This study explored the implementation of an adaptive quizzing and learning system as part of an NCLEX-RN preparation strategy designed to increase student engagement and subsequent success on the NCLEX-RN. The adaptive quizzing system was used as part of an ongoing, proactive strategy to student preparation. This strategy is in contrast to the practice of using high-stakes exams scores to try and predict student NCLEX-RN outcomes. In the latter case there is mixed evidence on how scores relate to remediation and moving students toward success based on evidence of need. The study school required students (N = 54) to take regular, adaptive practice quizzes throughout their final year in the nursing program. Students were also given the HESI E2 in their final semester and all but one student achieved the target threshold with a range of scores (772 to 1028). Despite this variability, 90.7% of the students in the study group passed the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt, with a pass rate of 98% when considering those who passed on the second attempt. NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school increased by 11.55% following the implementation of the system and in the second year of implementation (the data analyzed for this study) increased an additional 3.95% from the previous year. With many factors to consider, we cannot say, unequivocally, that using the AQS resulted in an increase in NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school. Findings from this retrospective study do, however, support the use of an adaptive quizzing system as a component of the NCLEX-RN preparation strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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