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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 993 matches for " Juergen Beuthan "
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Computer Aided Interpretation Approach for Optical Tomographic Images
Christian D. Klose,Alexander D. Klose,Uwe Netz,Juergen Beuthan,Andreas H. Hielscher
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1117/1.3516705
Abstract: A computer-aided interpretation approach is proposed to detect rheumatic arthritis (RA) of human finger joints in optical tomographic images. The image interpretation method employs a multi-variate signal detection analysis aided by a machine learning classification algorithm, called Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM). Unlike in previous studies, this allows for combining multiple physical image parameters, such as minimum and maximum values of the absorption coefficient for identifying affected and not affected joints. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and mutual information. Different methods (i.e., clinical diagnostics, ultrasound imaging, magnet resonance imaging and inspection of optical tomographic images), were used as "ground truth"-benchmarks to determine the performance of image interpretations. Using data from 100 finger joints, findings suggest that some parameter combinations lead to higher sensitivities while others to higher specificities when compared to single parameter classifications employed in previous studies. Maximum performances were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratio and image variance with respect to ultra sound as benchmark. In this case, sensitivity and specificity of 0.94 and 0.96 respectively were achieved. These values are much higher than results reported when a) other classification techniques were applied or b) single parameter classifications were used, where sensitivities and specificities of 0.71 were achieved.
Discriminating Depression, Physical and Social Anhedonia by Neurotransmitter Related Challenge Tests  [PDF]
Petra Netter, Juergen Hennig
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.73030
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate, if anhedonia, a salient component of depression, shows similar response patterns to neurotransmitter challenge tests as depression, and if the two questionnaire based components Physical (PA) and Social (SA) Anhedonia can be discriminated by differences in drug related size and time of cortisol responses elicited by the specific serotonin (5- HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors citalopram and reboxetine and prolactin responses to the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine orally applied to 36 male volunteers in a double blind balanced cross-over design. Analyses of variance applied to placebo corrected hormone responses revealed that low and late DA responses were characteristics of global Depression and of Physical Anhedonia, and that low DA responses were associated with high NA responses in PA, and with low 5-HT responses in SA. These patterns were explained by differences in transmitter production and receptor sensitivities and proved to be suitable to discriminate PA from SA and from global depression by analysing neurochemical response patterns rather than single means of variables.

Do Near-Solar-System Supernovae Enhance Volcanic Activities on Earth and Neighbouring Planets on Their Paths through the Spiral Arms of the Milky Way, and What Might Be the Consequences for Estimations of Earth’s History and Predictions for Its Future?  [PDF]
Heinz-Juergen Brink
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2019.105032
Abstract: Recent observations of young volcanism on the near-Earth terrestrial planets require a new understanding. Magmatic/volcanic episodes on Venus, Mars and Mercury, as well as on Earth’s Moon, are apparently contemporaneous thermal events that accompanied increased magmatic/volcanic activity on Earth, following a 300-Myr cycle. A collateral galactic thermal source in the Milky Way appears to be needed that would predominantly affect the interior of the planets and, perhaps indirectly, Earth’s biosphere, compared to other galactic sources, such as intense cosmic rays or large, rocky bolides. The search for such a source leads to near-Earth supernovae, with their neutrino output, and to the question of whether those neutrinos could act as energy transmitters to heat up the body of Earth, and also enhance its short-term magmatic processes; for example, Cenozoic anorogenic volcanism. This observation challenges present assumptions and paradigms about Earth’s history, and requires the following reconsiderations: 1) the real origin of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction; 2) the general radioactive age determinations of rocks; and 3) geodynamic modelling using additional, external heat sources.
Low temperature resistivity and thermopower anomalies in pure gold
Juergen Kopp
Gold Bulletin , 1976, DOI: 10.1007/BF03216609
Abstract: Minute quantities of magnetic impurities, particularly iron, can change the low temperature transport properties of gold beyond recognition. Careful measurements of the resistivity and thermopower can yield a valuable insight into the type of impurity present. It has been possible to remove iron selectively by a high temperature chlorine treatment, and remanent iron concentrations as low as 1 part per billion (10 9)have been obtained.
Differences in $dE/dX$ for $\mu+$ and $\mu-$ and its Effect on the Underground Charge Ratio
Reichenbacher, Juergen
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: Theoretical calculations predict a small fractional difference in energy loss for $\mu^+$ and $\mu^-$ of the order of $0.15 %$ at high energies. This is predominantly due to a $z^3$ term in an extended ionization $dE/dX$ relation, in analogy to the Barkas effect at low energies around the Bethe-Bloch maximum. The atmospheric muon energy spectrum is steeply falling off with approximately $E^{-3.7}$ and thus the small difference in $dE/dX$ between $\mu^+$ and $\mu^-$ at high energies results in an amplified charge asymmetry of about $0.6 %$ many thousand meters water equivalent deep underground.
Calculation of the Underground Muon Intensity Crouch Curve from a Parameterization of the Flux at Surface
Reichenbacher, Juergen
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007,
Abstract: Utilizing only the vertical muon intensity of the Gaisser parameterization of the muon flux at the surface and propagating this energy spectrum underground according to statistical ionization and radiative energy losses, it is possible to calculate the underground muon intensity Crouch curve. In addition, the primary spectral index of the Gaisser parameterization can be adjusted from $E^{-2.7}$ to $E^{-2.643}$ simply by minimizing the deviation from the Crouch curve. For chemical compositions other than standard rock, the propagation of the spectrum underground can be repeated with a different muon energy loss in the material. The resulting underground muon intensity curve represents a consistent conversion of the Crouch curve to the local rock, fully accounting for the energy dependence of the muon $dE/dx$.
Formal Aspects of the Emergence of Institutions
Juergen Jost
Structure and Dynamics : e-Journal of Anthropological and Related Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: We argue that social institutions emerge on the basis of the human cognitive ability to integrate an evaluation of the behavior and performances of other group members over long time periods. The results of those evaluations are condensed into the social status of an individual, and that status is the link between short time achievements and long term success within the group. Altruistic behavior on a short time scale can be advantageous for an individual on a longer time scale as it contributes to her or his status. Conversely, for example, building mating decisions not on events that may be quite random on a short time scale, but on long term accumulations is an evolutionarily rational behavior because it reduces stochastic fluctuations by averaging. Our proposal does not need any group selection scheme. It calls some approaches to computer simulations of social dynamics into question. It is based on considerations from system theory, in particular, concerning the integration of different temporal scales. It utilizes a new concept of emergence as opposed to self-organization through non-linear interactions of simple elements. It requires further studies from the social sciences to understand that scale shift as encoded in social status.
Multiscale Modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Apparatus: Simulations and Approximations
Juergen Geiser
Polymers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/polym5010142
Abstract: We are motivated to compute delicate chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. Such processes are used to deposit thin films of metallic or ceramic materials, such as SiC or a mixture of SiC and TiC. For practical simulations and for studying the characteristics in the deposition area, we have to deal with delicate multiscale models. We propose a multiscale model based on two different software packages. The large scales are simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software based on the transportreaction model (or macroscopic model), and the small scales are simulated with ordinary differential equations (ODE) software based on the reactive precursor gas model (or microscopic model). Our contribution is to upscale the correlation of the underlying microscale species to the macroscopic model and reformulate the fast reaction model. We obtain a computable model and apply a standard CFD software code without losing the information of the fast processes. For the multiscale model, we present numerical results of a real-life deposition process.
GAMES AND THE CONTRADICTIONS OF CHILDHOOD
Juergen Schwier
ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte , 2008,
Abstract: : This paper attempts to look into the question of up to what extent games present an efficient medium in the development process of children in the late schoolchild age (approximately between the 8th and 12th year of age). I would like to dispute at the outset of some central tendencies of modern childhood developments and of the changes in the everyday life of children. While the realized change in childhood often has been described as a loss of intimacy, spontaneity, initiative and sociability, in this paper attention is called to the potential chances of this process that might open up some possibilities to a new balancing of the relation between individuality and sociability, between intimacy and society. In form of a review, I would like to trace George Herbert Mead′s intersubjective-theoretical conception as a second line of argumentation for revealing the developmental-logical function of games which is not interchangeable at will. Finally the consequences for the subject matter of games at school and sport clubs are to be outlined. Resumen: Este artículo trata el tema de hasta qué punto los juegos presentan un medio eficiente en el desarrollo en los últimos a os de la infancia (aproximadamente entre 8 y 12 a os). Me gustaría mostrar algunas tendencias centrales del desarrollo contemporáneo de la infancia y de los cambios en su vida cotidiana. Aunque los cambios en la infancia se describen frecuentemente como una pérdida de la intimidad, espontaneidad y sociabilidad, en este artículo se prestará atención a las oportunidades que podría abrir este proceso para un nuevo equilibrio entre la individualidad y la sociabilidad, entre la intimidad y la sociedad. A modo de revisión, me gustaría presentar la concepción intersubjetiva-teórica de George Herbert Mead como una línea de argumentación que revela que las funciones lógica y de desarrollo de los juegos no pueden intercambiarse a voluntad. Finalmente, se esbozarán algunas consecuencias para los juegos en las escuelas y clubes deportivos.
The Nature and Management of Myanmar’s Alignment with China: The SLORC/SPDC Years
Juergen Haacke
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: Recent research has focused increasingly on the strategies that Southeast Asian countries have adopted vis-à-vis a rising China. This article aims to contribute to the literature by discussing Myanmar’s alignment posture towards China under the post-September 1988 military regime. In particular, the purpose is to specify and explain the nature and management of this alignment. The argument is as follows: first, during the two decades of SLORC/SPDC (State Law and Order Restoration Council/State Peace and Development Council) rule, Myanmar sought only limited alignment with China, focused primarily on diplomatic support and protection, with only a moderate record of bilateral defence and security cooperation. Second, Myanmar’s alignment with China after 1988 was shaped by at least three important factors: the core principles of the country’s previous foreign policy after colonial rule, a deeply embedded sense of nationalism among the military elite, and Burma’s Cold War interaction with China. Third, in managing its alignment with China over the last decade, the SPDC avoided compromises perceived as unpalatable in return for the promise of diplomatic protection and instead ‘rewarded’ Beijing by consenting to economic and infrastructure projects that were considered to advance the regime’s interest in either generating state revenue or contributing to the consolidation and expansion of control over state territory. The SPDC also pushed Beijing into reconsidering its position on the sensitive issue of armed ethnic groups in the Sino-Myanmar border region. The Myanmar case thus shows that lesser powers can obtain security benefits from a major power without this necessarily requiring more than limited alignment or entailing a serious erosion of political autonomy, particularly when the former possesses valuable natural resources and enjoys considerable geo-strategic significance for the latter.
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