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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4101 matches for " Judith Clarke "
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Antibody isotype analysis of malaria-nematode co-infection: problems and solutions associated with cross-reactivity
Karen J Fairlie-Clarke, Tracey J Lamb, Jean Langhorne, Andrea L Graham, Judith E Allen
BMC Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-11-6
Abstract: Utilising two murine models of malaria-helminth co-infection we analysed antibody responses of mice singly- or co-infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Litomosoides sigmodontis. We observed cross-reactive antibody responses that recognised antigens from both pathogens irrespective of whether crude parasite antigen preparations or purified recombinant proteins were used in ELISA. These responses were not apparent in control mice. The relative strength of cross-reactive versus antigen-specific responses was determined by calculating antibody titre. In addition, we analysed antibody binding to periodate-treated antigens, to distinguish responses targeted to protein versus carbohydrate moieties. Periodate treatment affected both antigen-specific and cross-reactive responses. For example, malaria-induced cross-reactive IgG1 responses were found to target the carbohydrate component of the helminth antigen, as they were not detected following periodate treatment. Interestingly, periodate treatment of recombinant malaria antigen Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119) resulted in increased detection of antigen-specific IgG2a responses in malaria-infected mice. This suggests that glycosylation may have been masking protein epitopes and that periodate-treated MSP-119 may more closely reflect the natural non-glycosylated antigen seen during infection.In order to utilize antibody isotypes as a measure of immune bias during co-infection studies, it is important to dissect antigen-specific from cross-reactive antibody responses. Calculating antibody titre, rather than using a single dilution of serum, as a measure of the relative strength of the response, largely accomplished this. Elimination of the carbohydrate moiety of an antigen that can often be the target of cross-reactive antibodies also proved useful.The geographical and socio-economic distribution of malaria overlaps with areas in which a number of helminth parasites are also end
Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice
Marieke A Hoeve, Katie J Mylonas, Karen J Fairlie-Clarke, Simmi M Mahajan, Judith E Allen, Andrea L Graham
BMC Immunology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-10-60
Abstract: We observed that the nematodes themselves caused transient loss of body mass and red blood cell density, but co-infection then slightly ameliorated the severity of malarial anaemia. We also tracked the development of immune responses in the lung and thoracic lymph node. By the time of onset of the adaptive immune response around 7 days post-infection, malaria co-infection had reduced pulmonary expression of ChaFFs. Assessment of the T cell response demonstrated that the Th2 response to the nematode was also significantly impaired by malaria co-infection.P. c. chabaudi co-infection altered both local and lymph node Type 2 immune activation due to migration of N. brasiliensis larvae. Given recent work from other laboratories showing that N. brasiliensis-induced ChaFFs correlate to the extent of long-term lung damage, our results raise the possibility that co-infection with malaria might alter pulmonary repair processes following nematode migration. Further experimentation in the co-infection model developed here will reveal the longer-term consequences of the presence of both malaria and helminths in the lung.Many prevalent species of parasitic nematodes - such as Ascaris lumbricoides, which infects over a billion people [1], or Necator americanus, the most geographically widespread of the human hookworms [2] - migrate through host lungs as larvae. Lung tissue is ruptured as the larvae burst out of the blood vessels to enter the alveolar spaces. Although this process is typically asymptomatic in humans, it can also be associated with acute respiratory distress or longer term complications [3]. For example, infection with lung-migrating helminths has been associated with bronchial hyper-reactivity and other asthma symptoms among children in China [4] and Brazil [5].The rodent parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) has proven a valuable laboratory model for nematode migration through the host body. In mice, L3 larvae injected into the skin migrate via the lungs to t
Retrospective Study of the Use of a Fractional Radio Frequency Ablative Device in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Related Acne Scars  [PDF]
Judith Hellman
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.54038
Abstract: Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common disease that often results in disfiguring facial scarring that carries into adulthood. Here we report our experience with fractional radiofrequency (FRF) device in treatment of patients with acne and acne related scarring. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with acne scarring who completed a four treatment regimen in our clinic. Results: We identified eight patients who completed four treatments with median age of 20.5 years (range 17 - 41). All patients demonstrated significant improvement of acne lesions and acne scarring. Skin biopsies demonstrated reduction of scar depth and increased new collagen production, and repopulation of the scar tissue by elastic fibers and adnexal structures after the fourth treatment. Conclusion: FRF emerges as a safe and effective treatment modality for AV and acne related scars. Further randomized controlled studies are required to fully evaluate the magnitude of this positive effect and more basic science studies are needed in order to better characterize its mechanism of action on acne lesions.
Long Term Follow-Up Results of a Fractional Radio Frequency Ablative Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Related Acne Scars  [PDF]
Judith Hellman
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2016.63013
Abstract: Introduction: Acne vulgaris and acne scarring are prevalent conditions that can have a negative effect on a patient’s quality of life. Fractional radiofrequency technologies have been shown to be clinically safe and effective in managing acne scars through dermal remodeling without causing direct damage to the epidermis. In a recently published study, we presented our clinical and histological results in the treatment of patients with active acne and acne related scarring using a Fractional RF (FRF) device. In the current article we demonstrate long term follow-up results, up to two years post last fractional treatment. Methods: Four out of the eight patients who completed a four treatment regimen were invited for long term follow-up visit to document treatment results. In some cases, touch-up treatments were conducted to optimize clinical results. Results: Patients demonstrated significant improvement of acne lesions, acne scarring, pores and skin texture. Long term photos demonstrated that clinical improvement progressed with time. Conclusion: The current study further supports the previous findings that FRF is a safe and effective treatment modality for active acne and acne related scars. Treatment protocol can be customized according to patient needs and clinical results last for long term.
The Internet of Things and Next-generation Public Health Information Systems  [PDF]
Robert Steele, Andrew Clarke
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B1002
Abstract: The Internet of things has particularly novel implications in the area of public health. This is due to (1) The rapid and widespread adoption of powerful contemporary Smartphone’s; (2) The increasing availability and use of health and fitness sensors, wearable sensor patches, smart watches, wireless-enabled digital tattoos and ambient sensors; and (3) The nature of public health to implicitly involve connectivity with and the acquisition of data in relation to large numbers of individuals up to population scale. Of particular relevance in relation to the Internet of Things (IoT) and public health is the need for privacy and anonymity of users. It should be noted that IoT capabilities are not inconsistent with maintaining privacy, due to the focus of public health on aggregate data not individual data and broad public health interventions. In addition, public health information systems utilizing IoT capabilities can be constructed to specifically ensure privacy, security and anonymity, as has been developed and evaluated in this work. In this paper we describe the particular characteristics of the IoT that can play a role in enabling emerging public health capabilities; we describe a privacy-preserving IoT-based public health information system architecture; and provide a privacy evaluation.
Prediction in several conventional contexts
Bertrand Clarke,Jennifer Clarke
Statistics Surveys , 2012,
Abstract: We review predictive techniques from several traditional branches of statistics. Starting with prediction based on the normal model and on the empirical distribution function, we proceed to techniques for various forms of regression and classification. Then, we turn to time series, longitudinal data, and survival analysis. Our focus throughout is on the mechanics of prediction more than on the properties of predictors.
A Nonsense Mutation in the IKBKG Gene in Mares with Incontinentia Pigmenti
Rachel E. Towers, Leonardo Murgiano, David S. Millar, Elise Glen, Ana Topf, Vidhya Jagannathan, Cord Dr?gemüller, Judith A. Goodship, Angus J. Clarke, Tosso Leeb
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081625
Abstract: Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders characterized by abnormalities in structures of ectodermal origin. Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an ED characterized by skin lesions evolving over time, as well as dental, nail, and ocular abnormalities. Due to X-linked dominant inheritance IP symptoms can only be seen in female individuals while affected males die during development in utero. We observed a family of horses, in which several mares developed signs of a skin disorder reminiscent of human IP. Cutaneous manifestations in affected horses included the development of pruritic, exudative lesions soon after birth. These developed into wart-like lesions and areas of alopecia with occasional wooly hair re-growth. Affected horses also had streaks of darker and lighter coat coloration from birth. The observation that only females were affected together with a high number of spontaneous abortions suggested an X-linked dominant mechanism of transmission. Using next generation sequencing we sequenced the whole genome of one affected mare. We analyzed the sequence data for non-synonymous variants in candidate genes and found a heterozygous nonsense variant in the X-chromosomal IKBKG gene (c.184C>T; p.Arg62*). Mutations in IKBKG were previously reported to cause IP in humans and the homologous p.Arg62* variant has already been observed in a human IP patient. The comparative data thus strongly suggest that this is also the causative variant for the observed IP in horses. To our knowledge this is the first large animal model for IP.
Effect of Telmisartan on Cerebral and Systemic Haemodynamics in Patients with Recent Ischaemic Stroke: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Gillian M. Sare,Andrew Ghadami,Sandeep Ankolekar,Timothy England,Fiona Hammonds,Margaret Adrian,Judith Clarke,Lynn Stokes,Dorothee Auer,Philip M. W. Bath
ISRN Stroke , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/587954
Abstract: High blood pressure (BP) is common in acute stroke and is independently associated with a poor outcome. Lowering BP might improve outcome if cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unaffected in the presence of dysfunctional autoregulation. We investigated the effect of telmisartan on systemic and cerebral haemodynamics in patients with recent stroke. Patients with ischaemic stroke (<5 days) were randomised to 90 days of telmisartan (80?mg) or placebo. CBF (primary outcome) was measured using xenon CT at baseline and 4 hours. BP and transcranial doppler (TCD) were performed at baseline, 4 hours after-treatment, and on days 4, 7, and 90. Cerebral perfusion pressure and zero filling pressure (ZFP) were calculated. Of a planned 24 patients, 17 were recruited. Telmisartan significantly accentuated the fall in systolic and diastolic BP over 90 days (treatment-time interaction , resp.) but did not alter BP at 4 hours after treatment (171/99 versus 167/87?mmHg), CBF, or CBF velocity. ZFP was significantly lower in the treatment group . Impairment at 7 days and dependency at 90 days did not differ between the groups. In this underpowered study, telmisartan did not significantly alter BP or CBF after the first dose. Telmisartan reduced BP over the subsequent 90 days and significantly lowered ZFP. This trial is registered with ISRCTN 41456162. 1. Introduction High blood pressure (BP) is common and associated independently with a poor outcome in patients with acute stroke [1–3]. However, there are no definitive data guiding the management of high BP. Individual small studies of BP modifying agents in acute stroke have indicated potential efficacy [4–6] or harm [7, 8]. A metaregression analysis of these and other trials suggested that systolic BP reductions in the order of 10–15?mmHg reduction were associated with a trend to reduced death at the end of trial, although the confidence intervals were wide and compatible with benefit or harm [9]; more extreme BP lowering or any form of BP elevation was associated with harm [3, 9]. The recently published large SCAST trial showed that candesartan only modestly lowered BP and had no beneficial effect on dependency or further vascular events [10]. Further large trials of BP lowering in acute stroke are underway including ENOS and INTERACT-2 [11]. However, since antihypertensive agents vary in their mode of action and their potential effects on cerebral blood flow, trials of individual agents may not be generalisable across all antihypertensive agents. Cerebral autoregulation is dysfunctional in acute stroke [12] and BP lowering could
The Post-Modern Mind. A Reconsideration of John Ashbery’s “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975) from the Viewpoint of an Interdisciplinary History of Ideas  [PDF]
Roland Benedikter, Judith Hilber
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper gives a short description of basic features of the dominating mindset in the Western world between the 1970s and today, often called “post-modern”, through a re-reading of John Ashbery’s poem “Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror” (1975). In doing so, it applies the viewpoint of an interdisciplinary history of ideas. Since collective mindsets have become the most important contextual political factors, the implications are multiple.
Gender Differences and Leadership Styles in a Non Secular Setting  [PDF]
Judith Corbett Carter
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2012.11001
Abstract: Women are increasingly taking on the role of religious leaders despite some institutional barriers. Do ef- fective female clergy lead differently than effective male clergy? The focus of this study was to examine gender differences in the context of non secular leadership. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) styles and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (FFI) was used to measure leadership and personal charac- teristics of female and male pastors. Limited findings indicate that female pastors were higher in Open- ness and Charisma than male pastors.
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