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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 463795 matches for " Judith A Omumbo "
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Wealth, mother's education and physical access as determinants of retail sector net use in rural Kenya
Abdisalan M Noor, Judith A Omumbo, Abdinasir A Amin, Dejan Zurovac, Robert W Snow
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-5
Abstract: Between December 2004 and January 2005, a random sample of 72 rural communities was selected across four Kenyan districts. Demographic, assets, education and net use data were collected at homestead, mother and child (aged < 5 years) levels. An assets-based wealth index was developed using principal components analysis, travel time to net sources was modelled using geographic information systems, and factors influencing the use of retail sector nets explored using a multivariable logistic regression model.Homestead heads and guardians of 3,755 children < 5 years of age were interviewed. Approximately 15% (562) of children slept under a net the night before the interview; 58% (327) of the nets used were purchased from the retail sector. Homestead wealth (adjusted OR = 10.17, 95% CI = 5.45–18.98), travel time to nearest market centres (adjusted OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.37–0.72) and mother's education (adjusted OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.93–4.41) were significantly associated with use of retail sector nets by children aged less than 5 years.Approaches to promoting access to nets through the retail sector disadvantage poor and remote communities where mothers are less well educated.Insecticide treated bed nets (ITN) have been shown to provide significant protection against early childhood mortality under a range of malaria settings in Africa [1], reduce the incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia in young children [1,2] and are regarded as a cost-effective public health intervention for low income countries [3]. African Heads of State, as part of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative, agreed that they would ensure that 60% of at-risk populations in their countries would have access to ITN by 2005 [4]. Since the Abuja summit, donor support to country national malaria control programmes or their non-governmental organisations (NGO) partners has substantially increased to support the adoption of ITN policies and programme implementation [5]. Despite the overwhelming scientific
The relationship between the Plasmodium falciparum parasite ratio in childhood and climate estimates of malaria transmission in Kenya
Judith A Omumbo, Simon I Hay, Carlos A Guerra, Robert W Snow
Malaria Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-3-17
Abstract: An electronic and national search was undertaken to identify community-based parasite prevalence surveys in Kenya. Data from these surveys were matched using ArcView 3.2 to extract spatially congruent estimates of the FCS values generated by the MARA model. Levels of agreement between three classes used during recent continental burden estimations of parasite prevalence (0%, >0 – <25% and ≥25%) and three classes of FCS (0, >0 – <0.75 and ≥0.75) were tested using the kappa (k) statistic and examined as continuous variables to define better levels of agreement.Two hundred and seventeen independent parasite prevalence surveys undertaken since 1980 were identified during the search. Overall agreement between the three classes of parasite prevalence and FCS was weak although significant (k = 0.367, p < 0.0001). The overall correlation between the FCS and the parasite ratio when considered as continuous variables was also positive (0.364, p < 0.001). The margins of error were in the stable, endemic (parasite ratio ≥25%) class with 42% of surveys represented by an FCS <0.75. Reducing the FCS value criterion to ≥0.6 improved the classification of stable, endemic parasite ratio surveys. Zero values of FCS were not adequate discriminators of zero parasite prevalence.Using the MARA model to categorically distinguish populations at differing intensities of malaria transmission in Kenya may under-represent those who are exposed to stable, endemic transmission and over-represent those at no risk. The MARA approach to defining FCS values of suitability for stable transmission represents our only contemporary continental level map of malaria in Africa but there is a need to redefine Africa's population at risk in accordance with both climatic and non-climatic determinants of P. falciparum transmission intensity to provide a more informed approach to estimating the morbid and fatal consequences of infection across the continent.In recent years there has been a renaissance in mapping
Raised temperatures over the Kericho tea estates: revisiting the climate in the East African highlands malaria debate
Judith A Omumbo, Bradfield Lyon, Samuel M Waweru, Stephen J Connor, Madeleine C Thomson
Malaria Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-12
Abstract: Over 30 years (1 January 1979 to 31 December 2009) of quality controlled daily observations ( > 97% complete) of maximum, minimum and mean temperature were used in the analysis of trends at Kericho meteorological station, sited in a tea growing area of Kenya's western highlands. Inhomogeneities in all the time series were identified and corrected. Linear trends were identified via a least-squares regression analysis with statistical significance assessed using a two-tailed t-test. These 'gold standard' meteorological observations were compared with spatially interpolated temperature datasets that have been developed for regional or global applications. The relationship of local climate processes with larger climate variations, including tropical sea surface temperatures (SST), and El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was also assessed.An upward trend of ≈0.2°C/decade was observed in all three temperature variables (P < 0.01). Mean temperature variations in Kericho were associated with large-scale climate variations including tropical SST (r = 0.50; p < 0.01). Local rainfall was found to have inverse effects on minimum and maximum temperature. Three versions of a spatially interpolated temperature data set showed markedly different trends when compared with each other and with the Kericho station observations.This study presents evidence of a warming trend in observed maximum, minimum and mean temperatures at Kericho during the period 1979 to 2009 using gold standard meteorological observations. Although local factors may be contributing to these trends, the findings are consistent with variability and trends that have occurred in correlated global climate processes. Climate should therefore not be dismissed as a potential driver of observed increases in malaria seen in the region during recent decades, however its relative importance compared to other factors needs further elaboration. Climate services, pertinent to the achievement of development targets such as the
Evaluation of Self-Treatment of Acne Using Silk’n Blue Phototherapy System  [PDF]
Judith Hellman, Cielo A. Ramirez
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.43025
Abstract:

Background: At-home phototherapy devices for the treatment of acne have emerged as an appealing treatment option and as an effective adjunct treatment to existing modalities. The principal goal of the study was to determine the changes in the number of inflammatory lesions in acne patients. Methods: Patients received instruction for daily at-home use of Silk’n Blue device for 12 weeks. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 and 3 months to collect data. Results: Fifteen subjects with mild to severe cases experienced improvement over the course of the trial. The decrease in mean inflammatory acne counts (from 41.26 to 24.46) and mean percent reduction (41.8%) were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Some participants experienced percent reductions as great as 67%. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: The Silk’n Blue device is a safe and effective modality for at-home treatment of mild, moderate, and severe inflammatory acne vulgaris with proper use.

Web-based climate information resources for malaria control in Africa
Emily K Grover-Kopec, M Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato, Tufa Dinku, Judy A Omumbo, Stephen J Connor
Malaria Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-5-38
Abstract: Malaria remains a major public health threat to the African continent and its control is critical to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in this region. The recently published Global Strategic Plan for Roll Back Malaria 2005–2015 has stated that "Six out of eight Millennium Development Goals can only be reached with effective malaria control in place" [1]. The greatest burden of malaria in Africa is born by populations in regions where the disease pathogen is perennially present in the community. In these regions, the environment is conducive to interactions between the Anopheles mosquito, malaria parasites and human hosts because they contain surface water in which mosquitoes can lay their eggs, humid conditions which facilitate adult mosquito life spans of adequate length, and relative warmth which allows both the mosquito and the malaria parasite to develop rapidly. In addition, housing quality is generally poor and offers little protection from human-mosquito interaction. Those most vulnerable to endemic malaria are young children (<5 years of age) who have yet to acquire disease immunity, pregnant women, whose immunity is reduced, and non-immune migrants or travelers.Epidemic malaria tends to occur along the geographical margins of the endemic regions, when the conditions supporting the equilibrium between the human, parasite and mosquito vector populations are disturbed. This leads to a sharp but temporary increase in disease incidence. More than 124 million Africans live in such areas and experience epidemics causing around 12 million malaria episodes and up to 310,000 deaths annually [2]. In these regions, an individual's exposure to malaria is infrequent and, therefore, little acquired immunity to this life threatening disease is developed. All age groups are, therefore, vulnerable to epidemic malaria [3]. The development of an online product that supports epidemic risk monitoring has been previously reported [4].While economic development has played
Best practices in use of research evidence to inform health decisions
Judith A Whitworth
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-4-11
Abstract: It is critical that health policy makers look to research, not ignorance, as the basis for action in health, and that health professionals look to evidence, not opinion, as the basis for delivery of care.WHO is unquestionably the world's leading public health agency. Accordingly its recommendations and actions should be informed by the best available research evidence. Over the last 50 years WHO has had notable successes, but the environment is changing. Increasingly governments, health professionals and consumers are demanding more rigorous processes to ensure that health decisions are well informed, with systematic and transparent processes for synthesis and interpretation of evidence, rather than traditional approaches using expert opinion. WHO has the mandate to capitalise on these advances and to play a leadership role with member states.The WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research (ACHR) is committed to the notion that WHO should exemplify best practice in use of research evidence to inform decisions about health. A major ongoing initiative of the ACHR is the Sub-committee on the Use of Research Evidence (SURE). This group is examining WHO's roles and responsibilities in the use of health research to inform decisions about health. WHO's leadership has expressed strong support for this initiative. The series of articles being published in Health Research Policy and Systems, which examine the methods used by WHO and other organisations to formulate recommendations about health, is part of the background documentation SURE has produced to inform ACHR's advice to WHO.ACHR looks forward to an ongoing role in promotion of best use of evidence in WHO's policies, recommendations and guidelines. These are essential for WHO to maintain its leadership role as the premier international health organisation in quality of advice based on best research evidence, consistent both with international best practice and WHO's key normative role as a standard setter.An article on E
La globalización de la insalubridad y la contaminación del aire urbano
Cherni,Judith A.;
EURE (Santiago) , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71612001008100002
Abstract: through bio-medical and political-economy multidisciplinary analysis of urban air contamination and related ill-health, the article shows that contemporary ecological degradation and environmental illness represent local phenomena that have globalised as these appear in developed and developing economies. these changes are associated to neo-liberal growth activities which have encouraged the emergence of modern environmental pollution. analysis of epidemiological studies reveal the globalisation of the phenomenon in cities around the world and particular emphasis is given to cities in europe, usa and south america
Construindo o estágio de docência da pós-gradua??o em química
Feitosa, Judith P. A.;
Química Nova , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422002000100024
Abstract: the teaching apprenticeship established by capes for post-graduation scholarship beholders has been discussed and the criterion adopted for the implementation in the post-graduation in inorganic chemistry program presented. a teaching plan for the new subject is proposed, based on the experience gained through a first group. an instrument for evaluation of the student's performance has been developed and analyzed. aspects like knowledge, clearness, enthusiasm, confidence, good manage on the audio-visual resources, class length are mentioned by degree of importance and the major difficulties faced and pointed out by the students.
UNA VALORACIóN DE LA GEOGRAFíA Y LA DIáSPORA AFRICANA
CARNEY,JUDITH A;
Tabula Rasa , 2006,
Abstract: the study of the african diaspora has become a vibrant area of research and teaching in recent years across the disciplines. however, geographical contributions remain few. this article seeks to reverse that trend. relevant work by geographers on the black atlantic is reviewed to identify promising themes for research. the dispersal of african plants, and the role of the enslaved in establishing them, holds particular promise. this research direction clarifies the african components of the columbian exchange while drawing attention to the importance of subsistence in the transatlantic slave trade and plantation economies. foodstaples of african origin served subsistence as well as memory. african plants are featured prominently in diasporic foodways, the liturgical practices of afro-syncretic religions, and in maroon oral histories.
Integrating Methods and Strategies from Language Teaching and Business Studies in Languages for Specific Business Purposes Courses
Ainsworth, Judith A.
Global Advances in Business Communication , 2012,
Abstract: It has been argued that acquisition of skills in the use of foreign languages is comparable to the development of competence in other skills (Drew & Ottewill, 1998). The foreign language learner must actively participate in the learning process and practice the skills required in order to achieve success. Thus, learning to communicate in a foreign language emphasises experimentation and concrete experience. On the other hand, abstract conceptualisation, reflective observation, and the development and testing of theories and ideas are more important for business studies. However, language studies and skills acquired are often related to the development of the softapplied skills of business communication and workplace competence. This paper argues that the two approaches to learning foreign languages and acquiring business competence are complementary and supportive. This can be accomplished by providing in two ways. First, courses in Languages for Specific Business Purposes can be offered that draw on an interdisciplinary approach based on recent studies in business discourse (Bargiela-Chiappini & Nickerson, 1999, 2002, 2003; Charles & Marschan-Piekkari, 2002; Planken, 2005; Poncini, 2003). Second, one can provide communicative activities, such as case studies and simulations emphasizing conceptual models and reflective observation, as well as language teaching related to business discourse situations and the strategic nature of the communicative event.
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