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The purpose was to examine and compare the psychometric properties of a Mexican Spanish version of the WHOQOL-OLD module. The instrument was applied to 285 individuals aged over 60 years (mean = 69.26, SD = 6.52). All participants completed a demographic data sheet, the WHOQOL-OLD, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); 182 of the 285 participants also completed a quality of life questionnaire for diabetic patients (DQOL). Acceptable levels of reliability were found, with Cronbach’s alpha values between 0.70 and 0.90 for overall quality of life and all domains except for autonomy, where the alpha value was low. The exploratory factor analysis carried out to examine the construct validity of the instrument yielded six domains: sensory abilities, autonomy, past/present/future activities, social participation, death and dying, and intimacy (explained variance of 62.95%). The mean overall quality of life score was 94.86 (SD = 13.68, range 50 to 120). The WHOQOL-OLD module showed criterion validity and concurrent validity with respect to the BDI (r = -0.516, p = 0.034), the GDS (r = -0.336, p = 0.002), and the DQOL (n = 182, r = 0.159, p = 0.032). Discriminant validity was also confirmed with respect to self-perceived health (t = 2.701, d.f. = 225, p = 0.007) and education (F(3, 280) = 9.015, p < 0.001), for both overall quality of life and some of its dimensions, but this was not the case with respect to gender (t = 1.292, d.f. = 283, p > 0.05). We conclude that the Mexican Spanish version of the WHOQOL-OLD module has adequate psychometric properties.
The quality of life (QOL) appears as an object of study of psychology, as a central component of human well-being. The quality of life in the elderly is especially relevant because as the years go the older persons can have lost health, the social role, the cognitive functioning, the power financial and their family. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of psychological variables associated with quality of life in Mexican elderly. A sample of 75 elderly people between 60 and 87 years (mean = 65, SD = 9.41), 45 women and 30 men, assigned to a health clinic. QOL was measured with the WHOQOL, and an ex post facto design, three groups were formed by the level obtained with depressive symptoms GDS: (G1) absent (n1 = 42), (G2) mild (n2 = 19) and (G3) moderate-severe (n3 = 14). An acceptable correlation between QOL and spirituality (r = .523, p < .0001). A negative association between QOL and depression (r = –.482, p < .0001). The QOL showed differences between groups with different levels of depressive symptoms (F(2.72) = 15.212, p < .0001). The QOL exhibited differences between diseased subjects (QOL = 61.19) and nondiseased (QOL = 66.61) (t = 2.025, p < .046). There were differences in the level of spirituality (Sp) among elderly patients (Sp = 64.77) and non-elderly patients (Sp = 75.0) (t = 2.37, df = 97, p < .02). The QOL in the elderly can be improved with psychological interventions to help reduce depression, where spirituality can be a resource and coping strategy to strengthen other areas of aging.