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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40040 matches for " Juan Vicente; Alvarez "
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Clinically Relevant Transmitted Drug Resistance to First Line Antiretroviral Drugs and Implications for Recommendations
Susana Monge, Vicente Guillot, Marta Alvarez, Natalia Chueca, Natalia Stella, Alejandro Pe?a, Rafael Delgado, Juan Córdoba, Antonio Aguilera, Carmen Vidal, Federico García, CoRIS
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090710
Abstract: Background The aim was to analyse trends in clinically relevant resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Spain, applying the Stanford algorithm, and to compare these results with reported Transmitted Drug Resistance (TDR) defined by the 2009 update of the WHO SDRM list. Methods We analysed 2781 sequences from ARV naive patients of the CoRIS cohort (Spain) between 2007–2011. Using the Stanford algorithm “Low-level resistance”, “Intermediate resistance” and “High-level resistance” categories were considered as “Resistant”. Results 70% of the TDR found using the WHO list were relevant for first-line treatment according to the Stanford algorithm. A total of 188 patients showed clinically relevant resistance to first-line ARVs [6.8% (95%Confidence Interval: 5.8–7.7)], and 221 harbored TDR using the WHO list [7.9% (6.9–9.0)]. Differences were due to a lower prevalence in clinically relevant resistance for NRTIs [2.3% (1.8–2.9) vs. 3.6% (2.9–4.3) by the WHO list] and PIs [0.8% (0.4–1.1) vs. 1.7% (1.2–2.2)], while it was higher for NNRTIs [4.6% (3.8–5.3) vs. 3.7% (3.0–4.7)]. While TDR remained stable throughout the study period, clinically relevant resistance to first line drugs showed a significant trend to a decline (p = 0.02). Conclusions Prevalence of clinically relevant resistance to first line ARVs in Spain is decreasing, and lower than the one expected looking at TDR using the WHO list. Resistance to first-line PIs falls below 1%, so the recommendation of screening for TDR in the protease gene should be questioned in our setting. Cost-effectiveness studies need to be carried out to inform evidence-based recommendations.
Tourniquet-Related Iatrogenic Femoral Nerve Palsy after Knee Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Juan Mingo-Robinet,Carlos Casta?eda-Cabrero,Vicente Alvarez,José Miguel León Alonso-Cortés,Eva Monge-Casares
Case Reports in Orthopedics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/368290
Abstract: Purpose. Tourniquet-induced nerve injuries have been reported in the literature, but even if electromyography abnormalities in knee surgery are frequent, only two cases of permanent femoral nerve palsies have been reported, both after prolonged tourniquet time. We report a case of tourniquet-related permanent femoral nerve palsy after knee surgery. Case Report. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent surgical treatment of a patella fracture. Tourniquet was inflated to 310?mmHg for 45 minutes. After surgery, patient complained about paralysis of the quadriceps femoris with inability to extend the knee. Electromyography and nerve conduction study showed a severe axonal neuropathy of the left femoral nerve, without clinical remission after several months. Discussion. Even if complications are not rare, safe duration and pressure for tourniquet use remain a controversy. Nevertheless, subtle clinical lesions of the femoral nerve or even subclinical lesions only detectable by nerve conduction and EMG activity are frequent, so persistent neurologic dysfunction, even if rare, may be an underreported complication of tourniquet application. Elderly persons with muscle atrophy and flaccid, loose skin might be in risk for iatrogenic nerve injury secondary to tourniquet. 1. Introduction Pneumatic surgical tourniquets are widely used in orthopedic and plastic surgery, as well as in intravenous regional anesthesia. They enable surgeons to work in a bloodless operative field in the distal extremity. However, even if proper inflation pressures and tourniquet times are controlled, all tourniquets can cause a various range of complications, ranging from minor to fatal [1]. Local complications caused by the high pressures under the tourniquet include skin abrasions, vascular injury, postoperative swelling, loss of muscle strength, and nerve injuries [2]. In the pathophysiology of nerve injury, both mechanical compression and neural ischemia are involved [3]. Mechanical compression of the nerve causes microvascular congestion, inadequate tissue perfusion, and axonal degeneration [4], leading more frequently to a transient loss of function but sometimes to irreversible damage and paralysis. Nerve injuries associated with tourniquet use have been reported in the literature [3, 5–10], but, even if there are studies demonstrating a high rate of femoral nerve electromyographic abnormalities after tourniquet use in knee surgery [11, 12], only few articles report permanent femoral nerve injuries [8, 13]. We report a case of tourniquet-related permanent femoral nerve
COMPORTAMIENTO AGRONóMICO E INCIDENCIA DE ENFERMEDADES EN INJERTOS DE JITOMATE EN JITOMATE NATIVO DE MéXICO
Alvarez Hernandez Juan Carlos
Acta Agronómica , 2012,
Abstract: Resumen Con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento del jitomate injertado en jitomate nativo, se estableció un estudio en “Valle de Apatzingán” Michoacán, México. Como portainjerto se utilizaron ecotipos de jitomate Solanum lycopersicum L. variedad cerasiforme (“tinguaraque”), como injerto el cultivar “Toro ”. Se conformaron 13 tratamientos: seis injertos de jitomate en “tinguaraque”, seis “tinguaraques” y testigo (jitomate). En los tratamientos injertos y jitomate se registró: altura, diámetro de tallo, racimos florales, altura al primer racimo floral, peso, tama o y rendimiento de frutos por planta; en todos los tratamientos se registró en frutos pH, sólidos solubles y humedad; y en planta incidencia de enfermedades. Se obtuvieron diferencias para altura, diámetro, racimos florales y tama o de fruto, donde los injertos presentaron valores mayores a diferencia del jitomate. De las tres enfermedades registradas (“damping off”, complejo Alternaria-Fusarium y “geminivirus”), únicamente “damping off” tuvo diferencias, donde los injertos presentaron menor incidencia. Al comparar valores de características de frutos, los “tinguaraques” y jitomate presentaron valores particulares, estos no influyeron en el injerto. Se concluye que el injerto de jitomate mostró potencial en el manejo del cultivo, sin demeritar las características de planta y frutos, ni rendimiento; mediante el injerto, se redujo la incidencia de “damping off”.
El Rol de la Escuela en la Comunidad Indígena.
Juan Alvarez T.
Cultura-Hombre-Sociedad , 2008, DOI: 10.7770/cuhso-v0n0-art401
Abstract: Evidentemente y con gran dramatismo constatamos que esa disociación existe entre comunidad indígena y escuela, entendida esta última como educación nacional. Y es que los objetivos de ambas no son coincidentes, y mejor dicho son conflictivas, por provenir de culturas, ideologías, sistemas económicos, concepción del mundo muy opuestos. En vez de buscar una integración y valoración positiva y enriquecedora de ambos ''mundos''. el sistema de educación nacional ha encubierto un sistema de dominación cultural, que sin duda ha desencadenado consecuencias como: aculturación, pérdida de identidad. dependencia económica. migración, etc. En el otro lado, la comunidad resiste al etnocidio. con los elementos que ha podido preservar, cual más o menos integro: la tecnología, los sistemas de ayuda mutua. las costumbres, la Iengua, etc.
Geografía y Filosofia de la Ciência
Juan Ramón Alvarez
Finisterra - Revista Portuguesa de Geografia , 1978,
Abstract:
Asymptotic almost-equivalence of abstract evolution systems
Felipe Alvarez,Juan Peypouquet
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: We study the asymptotic behavior of almost-orbits of abstract evolution systems in Banach spaces with or without a Lipschitz assumption. In particular, we establish convergence, convergence in average and almost-convergence of almost-orbits both for the weak and the strong topologies based on the behavior of the orbits. We also analyze the set of almost-stationary points.
Dual spheres have the same girth
Juan Carlos Alvarez Paiva
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: Symplectic and Finsler geometry are used to settle a conjecture of Sch\"affer stating that the girth of a normed space--the infimum of the lengths of all closed, rectifiable, centrally symmetric curves on its unit sphere--equals the girth of its dual.
Dual mixed volumes and isosystolic inequalities
Juan Carlos Alvarez Paiva
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: The theory of dual mixed volumes is extended to star bodies in cotangent bundles and is used to prove several isosystolic inequalities for Hamiltonian systems and Finsler metrics.
Host factors influencing susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS progression
Juan Lama, Vicente Planelles
Retrovirology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-4-52
Abstract: The period of asymptomatic disease after HIV-1 infection averages about ten years, although it may vary greatly among infected subjects [1]. The existence of attenuated viral strains that fail to induce disease in animal models has long been known. Similarly, it is now widely accepted that human allelic variants for certain genes can influence the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection [2,3]. Supporting a role for genetic factors in the host, several studies have shown that susceptibility to HIV-1 in vitro largely varies among individual donors. Conversely, primary cells from homozygotic twins display much less variation in their permissivity to infection [4-8].Like all viruses, HIV-1 must usurp the cellular machinery at multiple steps to complete a productive cycle. The virus enters cells by fusing with the cellular membrane, taking advantage of receptor and co-receptor host proteins, which otherwise play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Then, the viral genetic material is delivered into the cytoplasm in the form of a nucleoprotein core. The viral RNA genome is copied into DNA, transported to the cell nucleus, and integrated in the host chromosome. The proviral HIV-1 DNA is transcribed into viral mRNAs, which are then processed and exported to the cytoplasm. Upon translation, viral products are transported to budding sites where virions are assembled together with viral RNA. For each of these steps, HIV-1 relies on cellular proteins. Only a fraction of these host proteins have been identified, but their role in the HIV-1 life cycle is currently a subject of intense investigation.Several approaches have been used to study HIV pathogenesis in vivo. The availability of non-human primate models has largely advanced our understanding of the field. Studies with animal models have highlighted the importance of the so-called viral "accessory genes" in HIV disease progression. These genes were initially deemed non-essential in in vitro studies because the virus woul
El Estado y las estrategias nacionales de desarrollo en Brasil. Evolución y trayectorias recientes.
Juan Vicente Bachiller Cabria
Anuario Americanista Europeo , 2012,
Abstract: La acentuada presencia de la acción pública es una de las características más significativas del capitalismo brasile o. La cuestión del desarrollo económico ha estado siempre estrechamente relacionada en Brasil con la implantación de una serie de organismos e instituciones para dar cuenta de este proceso. La construcción del Estado brasile o contemporáneo se relaciona con la sucesión de distintas estrategias de desarrollo económico, de forma que, a cada gran proyecto nacional de crecimiento, industrialización e inserción internacional de la economía, se ha correspondido un tipo específico de reforma institucional del entramado público.
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