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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31717 matches for " Juan Bottasso "
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Rese a de "Protestantismo indígena" de Susana Andrade
Bottasso , Juan
Iconos : Revista de Ciencias Sociales , 2004,
Abstract:
A misunderstood Pope
Juan Bottasso
Alteridad : Revista de Educación , 2013,
Abstract: After Pope Benedict′s resignation, the media obsessively highlighted divisions of the Church and the scandals, forgetting that Joseph Ratzinger had sought to preserve the Church′s “common denominator of tradition and dogma”. Through a brief analysis on the difficult path Ratzinger had to lead, as part of the Ecumenical Council, in his differences with the theology of liberation, and his reluctance later as Pope to blindly leap into modernity, this article points out Ratzinger′s efforts to keep the Church unified. Ratzinger belonged to the progressive wing of the Council, however, his work was misunderstood for having to maintain order in a world marked by 1968′s social revolution, the Cold War, Marxism, the politicization of religion, and thus having to defend the Church from “self-destruction”. This article discusses the reality of Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, a life dedicated to the Catholic Church in the face of today′s world challenges.
Religion and violence
P. Juan Bottasso
Alteridad : Revista de Educación , 2011,
Abstract: Las religiones son necesariamente violentas?Resulta evidente que en la actualidad, muchos de los conflictos, que ensangrientan el planeta, tienen un trasfondo religioso. El que aparece casi a diario en los noticieros es el que contrapone israelíes y palestinos (judíos contra musulmanes), pero con enorme frecuencia se habla también de actos terroristas llevados a cabo por fanáticos religiosos que no dudan en masacrar a civiles inocentes, en nombre de la divinidad. Debe ser bajo el efecto de estas informaciones que, cuando a fines de 2010 el Times de Londres preguntó a los lectores si consideraban la religión útil para la sociedad, éstos contestaron mayoritariamente de manera negativa. En la mira de los críticos se encuentran especialmente las religiones monoteístas, porque, al considerarse exclusivas poseedoras de la única verdad, están particularmente expuestas a la intransigencia, basadas en la premisa que el error no puede tener derechos.
Chagasic Thymic Atrophy Does Not Affect Negative Selection but Results in the Export of Activated CD4+CD8+ T Cells in Severe Forms of Human Disease
Alexandre Morrot ,Eugênia Terra-Granado,Ana Rosa Pérez,Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa,Novica M. Mili?evi?,Désio Aurélio Farias-de-Oliveira,Luiz Ricardo Berbert,Juliana De Meis,Christina Maeda Takiya,Juan Beloscar,Xiaoping Wang,Vivian Kont,P?rt Peterson,Oscar Bottasso,Wilson Savino
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001268
Abstract: Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells are increased in some pathophysiological conditions, including infectious diseases. In the murine model of Chagas disease, it has been shown that the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is able to target the thymus and induce alterations of the thymic microenvironment and the lymphoid compartment. In the acute phase, this results in a severe atrophy of the organ and early release of DP cells into the periphery. To date, the effect of the changes promoted by the parasite infection on thymic central tolerance has remained elusive. Herein we show that the intrathymic key elements that are necessary to promote the negative selection of thymocytes undergoing maturation during the thymopoiesis remains functional during the acute chagasic thymic atrophy. Intrathymic expression of the autoimmune regulator factor (Aire) and tissue-restricted antigen (TRA) genes is normal. In addition, the expression of the proapoptotic Bim protein in thymocytes was not changed, revealing that the parasite infection-induced thymus atrophy has no effect on these marker genes necessary to promote clonal deletion of T cells. In a chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic system, the administration of OVA peptide into infected mice with thymic atrophy promoted OVA-specific thymocyte apoptosis, further indicating normal negative selection process during the infection. Yet, although the intrathymic checkpoints necessary for thymic negative selection are present in the acute phase of Chagas disease, we found that the DP cells released into the periphery acquire an activated phenotype similar to what is described for activated effector or memory single-positive T cells. Most interestingly, we also demonstrate that increased percentages of peripheral blood subset of DP cells exhibiting an activated HLA-DR+ phenotype are associated with severe cardiac forms of human chronic Chagas disease. These cells may contribute to the immunopathological events seen in the Chagas disease.
Early Double-Negative Thymocyte Export in Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Restricted by Sphingosine Receptors and Associated with Human Chagas Disease
Ailin Lepletier,Liliane de Almeida,Leonardo Santos,Luzia da Silva Sampaio,Bruno Paredes,Florencia Belén González,Célio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima,Juan Beloscar,Oscar Bottasso,Marcelo Einicker-Lamas,Ana Rosa Pérez,Wilson Savino,Alexandre Morrot
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003203
Abstract: The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is able to target the thymus and induce alterations of the thymic microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments. Acute infection results in severe atrophy of the organ and early release of immature thymocytes into the periphery. To date, the pathophysiological effects of thymic changes promoted by parasite-inducing premature release of thymocytes to the periphery has remained elusive. Herein, we show that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent mediator of T cell chemotaxis, plays a role in the exit of immature double-negative thymocytes in experimental Chagas disease. In thymuses from T. cruzi-infected mice we detected reduced transcription of the S1P kinase 1 and 2 genes related to S1P biosynthesis, together with increased transcription of the SGPL1 sphingosine-1-lyase gene, whose product inactivates S1P. These changes were associated with reduced intrathymic levels of S1P kinase activity. Interestingly, double-negative thymocytes from infected animals expressed high levels of the S1P receptor during infection, and migrated to lower levels of S1P. Moreover, during T. cruzi infection, this thymocyte subset expresses high levels of IL-17 and TNF-α cytokines upon polyclonal stimulation. In vivo treatment with the S1P receptor antagonist FTY720 resulted in recovery the numbers of double-negative thymocytes in infected thymuses to physiological levels. Finally, we showed increased numbers of double-negative T cells in the peripheral blood in severe cardiac forms of human Chagas disease.
Administration of interferon-g to pregnant rats reverses the depressed adjuvant-induced arthritis of their chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected offspring
Didoli, G.;Revelli, S.;Davila, H.;Ferro, M.E.;Romero-Piffiguer, M.;Bottasso, O.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1999000600011
Abstract: we demonstrated that administration of interferon gamma (ifn-g) to the inbred "l" strain of pregnant rats conferred partial resistance on their offspring to challenge with trypanosoma cruzi. we now examine if this intervention also modifies the reportedly immunodepressed cellular responses which occur during chronic infection. offspring were born to mothers undergoing one of the following procedures during gestation: subcutaneous injections of recombinant rat ifn-g, 50,000 iu/rat, five times/week for 3 weeks, which was started on the day of mating (ifn-mo); infection with 106 trypomastigotes of t. cruzi at 7, 14, and 21 days after mating plus ifn-g treatment as given to the former group (tcifn-mo); the same protocol except that physiological saline was injected instead of ifn-g (tc-mo); injection of physiological saline only (control-mo). all offspring groups (n = 8-10/group) were infected at weaning and were assessed 90 days later for their adjuvant-induced arthritic response or levels of major t cell subsets in spleen and lymph nodes. tcifn-mo and ifn-mo offspring showed a reestablished arthritic response, which remained within the range seen in controls. immunolabeling studies on parallel groups of 90-day-infected offspring showed that the inverse cd4/cd8 cell ratio that is usually seen in lymphoid organs from these chronically infected rats (median 0.61) appeared to have recovered in the tcifn-mo and ifn-mo groups (median 1.66 and 1.78, respectively) and was not different from uninfected controls (1.96). these studies indicate that early stimulation with ifn-g is able to reverse the immunosuppressive state that is usually present during the chronic period of the experimental infection.
Clinical and Experimental Immunomodulation
Lenin Pavón,Hugo Besedosky,Oscar Bottasso,Rogelio Hernández,Marco Velasco,Roger Loria
Journal of Immunology Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/801251
Abstract:
TNF-α Is Involved in the Abnormal Thymocyte Migration during Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Favors the Export of Immature Cells
Ana Rosa Pérez, Luiz Ricardo Berbert, Ailin Lepletier, Silvia Revelli, Oscar Bottasso, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Wilson Savino
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034360
Abstract: Previous studies revealed a significant production of inflammatory cytokines together with severe thymic atrophy and thymocyte migratory disturbances during experimental Chagas disease. Migratory activity of thymocytes and mature T cells seem to be finely tuned by cytokines, chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Systemic TNF-α is enhanced during infection and appears to be crucial in the response against the parasite. However, it also seems to be involved in disease pathology, since it is implicated in the arrival of T cells to effector sites, including the myocardium. Herein, we analyzed the role of TNF-α in the migratory activity of thymocytes in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) acutely-infected mice. We found increased expression and deposition of TNF-α in the thymus of infected animals compared to controls, accompanied by increased co-localization of fibronectin, a cell migration-related ECM molecule, whose contents in the thymus of infected mice is also augmented. In-vivo studies showed an enhanced export of thymocytes in T. cruzi-infected mice, as ascertained by intrathymic injection of FITC alone or in combination with TNF-α. The increase of immature CD4+CD8+ T cells in secondary lymphoid organs was even more clear-cut when TNF-α was co-injected with FITC. Ex-vivo transmigration assays also revealed higher number of migrating cells when TNF-α was added onto fibronectin lattices, with higher input of all thymocyte subsets, including immature CD4+CD8+. Infected animals also exhibit enhanced levels of expression of both mRNA TNF-α receptors in the CD4+CD8+ subpopulation. Our findings suggest that in T. cruzi acute infection, when TNF-α is complexed with fibronectin, it favours the altered migration of thymocytes, promoting the release of mature and immature T cells to different compartments of the immune system. Conceptually, this work reinforces the notion that thymocyte migration is a multivectorial biological event in health and disease, and that TNF-α is a further player in the process.
A Multifaceted Analysis of Immune-Endocrine-Metabolic Alterations in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Natalia Santucci, Luciano D'Attilio, Leandro Kovalevski, Verónica Bozza, Hugo Besedovsky, Adriana del Rey, María Luisa Bay, Oscar Bottasso
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026363
Abstract: Our study investigated the circulating levels of factors involved in immune-inflammatory-endocrine-metabolic responses in patients with tuberculosis with the aim of uncovering a relation between certain immune and hormonal patterns, their clinical status and in vitro immune response. The concentration of leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, IL-1β, ghrelin, C-reactive protein (CRP), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and the in vitro immune response (lymphoproliferation and IFN-γ production) was evaluated in 53 patients with active untreated tuberculosis, 27 household contacts and 25 healthy controls, without significant age- or sex-related differences. Patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), reduced levels of leptin and DHEA, and increased concentrations of CRP, IL-6, cortisol, IL-1β and nearly significant adiponectin values than household contacts and controls. Within tuberculosis patients the BMI and leptin levels were positively correlated and decreased with increasing disease severity, whereas higher concentrations of IL-6, CRP, IL-1β, cortisol, and ghrelin were seen in cases with moderate to severe tuberculosis. Household contacts had lower DHEA and higher IL-6 levels than controls. Group classification by means of discriminant analysis and the k-nearest neighbor method showed that tuberculosis patients were clearly different from the other groups, having higher levels of CRP and lower DHEA concentration and BMI. Furthermore, plasma leptin levels were positively associated with the basal in vitro IFN-γ production and the ConA-driven proliferation of cells from tuberculosis patients. Present alterations in the communication between the neuro-endocrine and immune systems in tuberculosis may contribute to disease worsening.
Dynamics of Adrenal Steroids Are Related to Variations in Th1 and Treg Populations during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV Positive Persons
Maria Florencia Quiroga, Matias Tomas Angerami, Natalia Santucci, Diego Ameri, Jose Luis Francos, Jorge Wallach, Omar Sued, Pedro Cahn, Horacio Salomón, Oscar Bottasso
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033061
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent cause of illness and death from an infectious agent, and its interaction with HIV has devastating effects. We determined plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its circulating form DHEA-suphate (DHEA-s) and cortisol in different stages of M. tuberculosis infection, and explored their role on the Th1 and Treg populations during different scenarios of HIV-TB coinfection, including the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a condition related to antiretroviral treatment. DHEA levels were diminished in HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients compared to healthy donors (HD), HIV+ individuals and HIV+ individuals with latent TB (HIV-LTB), whereas dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) levels were markedly diminished in HIV-TB IRIS individuals. HIV-TB and IRIS patients presented a cortisol/DHEA ratio significantly higher than HIV+, HIV-LTB and HD individuals. A positive correlation was observed between DHEA-s and CD4 count among HIV-TB individuals. Conversely, cortisol plasma level inversely correlated with CD4 count within HIV-TB individuals. M. tuberculosis-specific Th1 lymphocyte count was increased after culturing PBMC from HIV-TB individuals in presence of DHEA. We observed an inverse correlation between DHEA-s plasma level and Treg frequency in co-infected individuals, and CD4+FoxP3+ Treg frequency was increased in HIV-TB and IRIS patients compared to other groups. Strikingly, we observed a prominent CD4+CD25-FoxP3+ population across HIV-TB and HIV-TB IRIS patients, which frequency correlated with DHEA plasma level. Finally, DHEA treatment negatively regulated FoxP3 expression without altering Treg frequency in co-infected patients. These data suggest an enhancing role for DHEA in the immune response against M. tuberculosis during HIV-TB coinfection and IRIS.
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