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Research on using positive psychological perspectives to drive brain plasticity in a positive direction is increasingly encouraging and empowering for clinicians and clients. Increased lifespan with neuroplastic gains was found by Diamond in lab rats when they were held and spoken to. Improvements in brain chemistry, architecture and performance associated with lifestyle choices are now being documented in humans with increasing frequency of reports. Positive psychology can strengthen this trend toward increases in wellbeing by using this evolving research for motivation to increase healthy lifestyle choices, for reinforcement of successive approximation toward these goals and for the many gains associated with greater happiness.
Context: Despite a high number of unwanted pregnancies in Kenya, contraceptive use among adolescents is very low. Establishing the nature of sexuality discussions is critical to determine perceptions and barriers affecting contraceptive use among adolescents. Methods: The study used systematic random sampling to collect data to examine sexuality information and knowledge that affect perception and barriers on contra-ceptive use among 1119 adolescents aged 15 - 19 years in Nairobi. The survey was conducted using the 2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey enumeration areas and projections based on the 1999 population census. Data were collected using structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) among adolescents, parents and teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software while qualitative information was analyzed using iT Atlas. Results: Although teachers were identified as a primary source of sexuality information, they were poorly prepared to teach the subject. While the study found negative perceptions on sexuality education, most FGDs and IDIs supported the need for its integration in the school curriculum. Most adolescents who used con- traceptives had perceptions that their parents approved. Source of sexuality information, living arrangement and perceptions on contraceptives for unmarried adolescents were statistically associated with contraceptive use. Conclusion: The study showed that sexuality information from parents and teachers was biased against adolescents using contraceptives. There is need to address attitudes in discussing contraceptive use for adolescents by parents and teachers to enhance positive perceptions and increase contraceptive use by adolescents.
As in other developing countries, contraceptive use among adolescents is low and only one in twenty adolescents is reported to use contraceptives inKenya. Pregnancies early in life expose adolescents to health complications. Establishing perceptions that affect contraception and factors that influence those perceptions is important in developing appropriate programs and policies to increase contraceptive use prevalence among adolescents. We used primary data from a household survey using a systematic random sampling in eight administrative divisions inNairobiCountyin 2010. The study utilized information collected using structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs). The findings revealed that perceptions on parental approval, adolescent approval, ability to get contraceptives for self, knowledge of how to use contraceptives and sexual partner communication had significant effect on contraception. The narratives showed that parents, teachers and service providers had negative perceptions and discouraged contraception among adolescents thereby influencing use. Parents and teachers had inadequate knowledge and skills to communicate sexuality messages creating potential environment likely to have indirect negative influence on adolescents’ perceptions on contraception.
In this paper, analysis of the performance
of candidates in Mathematics in Primary School Leaving Examination was
conducted with the aim of highlighting difficulties encountered in solving
fraction-related problems. The
analysis has indicated that a considerable number of candidates could not
perform correct operations related to fractions. They tended to confuse
fraction concepts with whole number concepts. For instance, in questions
involving addition of fractions, they were treating numerators and denominators
as separate entities. Possible reasons for such difficulties in solving
questions related to fractions include lack of understanding of appropriate
procedures to apply in solving a problem, the complexity of the task,
over-generalization of procedures even in situations which are inappropriate.
It is recommended that a protocol analysis be conducted in order to gain a deep
understanding of the thought process of candidates when attempting questions
related to fractions so that teachers may use relevant teaching methods that
would facilitate meaningful learning of fractions.