oalib

OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

费用:99美元

投稿

时间不限

2018 ( 2 )

2017 ( 289 )

2016 ( 396 )

2015 ( 7427 )

自定义范围…

匹配条件: “Joy L. Johnson” ,找到相关结果约212970条。
列表显示的所有文章,均可免费获取
第1页/共212970条
每页显示
Opportunities to learn and barriers to change: crack cocaine use in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver
Susan Boyd, Joy L Johnson, Barbara Moffat
Harm Reduction Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-5-34
Abstract: In 2004, a team comprised of researchers and service providers launched the Safer Crack Use, Outreach, Research and Education (SCORE) project in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The purpose of the SCORE project was to develop a better understanding of the harms associated with crack cocaine smoking and to determine the feasibility of specific harm reduction strategies. A significant harm reduction component of the project included the distribution of safer crack kits. The findings for this paper are derived from 27 qualitative interviews conducted in 2007 with women and men who use crack cocaine and who had received safer crack kits.The SCORE project was ultimately aimed at providing harm reduction services to women and men. The project was dedicated to ensuring that everyone who uses crack and lives in the DTES has access to equipment and education that will help them to incorporate safer crack use practices. At the outset, one of the many questions we had related to how crack cocaine users access and utilize educational information about illegal drug use and harm reduction. We were also interested in knowing how crack cocaine users themselves reduce drug-related harm.SCORE drew from critical, feminist and harm reduction research on illegal drug use in constructing the research project and analyzing the research data. The project was also informed by community-based research perspectives. The following sections include background on critical and feminist drug research, harm reduction perspectives, methodology and project background, safer crack kits and distribution, and research findings. We conclude by highlighting social factors that shape crack use and learning opportunities. The project findings contribute to existing harm reduction literature and are expected to be of benefit to practitioners working in the area of harm reduction.Early critical drug research shifted the field of drug research. Rather than law officers or so
Better science with sex and gender: Facilitating the use of a sex and gender-based analysis in health research
Joy L Johnson, Lorraine Greaves, Robin Repta
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-8-14
Abstract: In the context of doing more sensitive, precise and relevant health research, there is an increasing emphasis on attending to issues of sex and gender. Much work has been done to promote sex and gender-based analyses in health research and to think critically about the influence of sex and gender on health behaviours and outcomes [1-10]. This work is viewed as key to understanding and addressing health inequities that exist throughout the world. Several journals have published special issues in recent years, emphasizing the scientific, methodological, and ethical rationales for including sex and gender in health research [2,4,10,11]. Despite this increased attention on sex and gender, there remain obstacles to effectively applying these concepts in health research. Some health researchers continue to ignore the concepts of sex and gender or use the terms synonymously and thus incorrectly [9,12]. Certain disciplines are more familiar with these concepts than others; while gender has been a prominent concept in the social sciences for decades, and has therefore influenced social science health research, it has only relatively recently begun to enter the lexicon of biomedical and clinical health researchers. Thus, gender, which fundamentally refers to social and cultural influences, is often conflated or confused with sex, referring to the biological category of influences [9]. This conflation leads to confusion about the contributions of sex and gender to health, incomplete analysis and reporting in health research, and potential missed opportunities for developing appropriate medical interventions and policy responses [9].To address these errors and omissions, researchers have begun to tackle the operational challenges of incorporating sex and gender in health research, providing methodological advice and realistic recommendations to researchers [8,9,11-14]. For example, Prins et al. [8] discuss the importance of developing methodologic standards for pharmacogenetic
In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health
Joy L Johnson, Barbara M Moffat, Leslie A Malchy
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-23
Abstract: This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco?Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients.This study provides insights into the complex factors that shape tobacco control practices in the mental health field and reinforces the need to see practice change as a matter that extends beyond the individual. The study findings highlight discourses structured by power and powerlessness in environments in which health care providers are both imposing and resisting the smoke free policy.The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals
STI service delivery in British Columbia, Canada; providers' views of their services to youth
Masaro Cindy L,Johnson Joy,Chabot Cathy,Shoveller Jean
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-240
Abstract: Background Little is known about service providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and experiences in relation to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and how they influence the delivery of services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of STI care providers and the ways they approached their practice. Methods We used a qualitative approach drawing on methods used in thematic analysis. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 service providers delivering STI services in youth clinics, STI clinics, reproductive health clinics, and community public health units in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Results Service providers’ descriptions of their activities and roles were shaped by a number of themes including specialization, scarcity, and maintaining the status quo. The analysis suggests that service providers perceive, at times, the delivery of STI care to be inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion Findings from this study identify deficits in the delivery of STI services in BC. To understand these deficits, more research is needed to examine the larger health care structure within which service providers work, and how this structure not only informs and influences the delivery of services, but also how particular structural barriers impinge on and/or restrict practice.
Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective
Joan L Bottorff, Mary T Kelly, John L Oliffe, Joy L Johnson, Lorraine Greaves, Anna Chan
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-239
Abstract: As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data.Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed.Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic labour and childcare, and other activities that impact tobacco use. Sensitive approaches to tobacco reduction for women and men must be developed building on greater understanding of gender relations and how tobacco use is integrated in spousal and parental roles.The ideals of contemporary parenting now carry the social expectation that smoking is incompatible with being a good parent, especially for mothers [1]. Despite this anti-smoking social climate, in Canada smoking prevalence among young adults aged 20-24 years has increased to 27% [2], exceeding the 21% pr
A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure
Stephanie E Coen, Joan L Bottorff, Joy L Johnson, Pamela A Ratner
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-8-29
Abstract: Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation.Multidisciplinary approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most urgent contemporary health challenges, yet many university-based researchers struggle with a basic lack of administrative and material resources extending beyond departmental bounds to facilitate and formalise these collaborations. The highly decentralised structure typical of many university environments has traditionally circumscribed the scope of research support and facilities to specific faculties, schools, or departments. Such fragmentation creates major practical obstacles for investigators attempting to develop partnerships and teams with diverse expertise [1-3]. One organisational solution widely lauded for facilitating multidi
Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens
Joan L Bottorff, Joy L Johnson, Barbara M Moffat, Tamsin Mulvogue
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-4-7
Abstract: As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems.Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.'Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.There is lively public debate surrounding the use of medical marijuana. While some remain sceptical about the therapeutic value of marijuana, there is a growing body of research that emphasizes its salutary effects. The literature points to the use of marijuana among adults to alleviate a variety of symptoms including pain, nausea, muscle spasm, insomnia, anorexia and anxiety as well as the treatment of a variety of medical conditions that are both physical and psychological [1-5]. However, less is known about adolescents' use of marijuana for therapeutic purposes.For individuals who set out to "feel better" through the use of marijuana, use has also been referred to as "self-medication," a hypothesis which posits that people do not misuse substances solely for the experience of being "high;" rather, they do so as a means of gaining relief from psychological and emot
Self-reported physical and mental health status and quality of life in adolescents: a latent variable mediation model
Richard Sawatzky, Pamela A Ratner, Joy L Johnson, Jacek A Kopec, Bruno D Zumbo
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-8-17
Abstract: The data were obtained via a cross-sectional health survey of 8,225 adolescents in 49 schools in British Columbia, Canada. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the implied latent variable mediation model. The Pratt index (d) was used to evaluate variable importance.Relative to one another, self-reported mental health status was found to be more strongly associated with depressive symptoms, and self-reported physical health status more strongly associated with physical activity. Self-reported physical and mental health status and the five life domains explained 76% of the variance in global QOL. Relatively poorer mental health and physical health were significantly associated with lower satisfaction in each of the life domains. Global QOL was predominantly explained by three of the variables: mental health status (d = 30%), satisfaction with self (d = 42%), and satisfaction with family (d = 20%). Satisfaction with self and family were the predominant mediators of mental health and global QOL (45% total mediation), and of physical health and global QOL (68% total mediation).This study provides support for the validity and relevance of differentiating self-reported physical and mental health status in adolescent health surveys. Self-reported mental health status and, to a lesser extent, self-reported physical health status were associated with significant differences in the adolescents' satisfaction with their family, friends, living environment, school experiences, self, and their global QOL. Questions about adolescents' self-reported physical and mental health status and their experiences with these life domains require more research attention so as to target appropriate supportive services, particularly for adolescents with mental or physical health challenges.Health researchers and providers increasingly recognize the importance of obtaining information about adolescents' perspectives of their quality of life (QOL) [1-10]. Several instruments have been
Copy-number variation in BMPR2 is not associated with the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension
Jennifer A Johnson, Cindy L Vnencak-Jones, Joy D Cogan, James E Loyd, James West
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-58
Abstract: 97 human DNA samples were obtained which included 24 patients with familial PAH, 18 obligate carriers (BMPR2 mutation positive), 20 sporadic PAH patients, and 35 controls. Two sets of primers were designed within the CNV, and two sets of control primers were designed outside the CNV. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify genomic copies of CNV and control sequences.A CNV in BMPR2 was present in one African American negative control subject.We conclude that the CNV in intron 1 in BMPR2 is unlikely to play a role in the pathogenesis of either familial or sporadic PAH.NIH NCT00091546.Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease characterized by obstruction of pre-capillary pulmonary arteries. Symptoms of PAH include fatigue and shortness of breath. Sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension eventually leads to right-sided heart failure and death. In 2000, mutations in BMPR2 (bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2) located on chromosome 2 were shown to cause familial PAH[1]. The BMPR2 gene spans 190 kb but encodes only a 4 kb transcript. It contains 13 exons and a large first intron composed of over 90 kb with frequent repetitive sequences. BMPR2 mutations are present in over 80% of patients diagnosed with familial PAH and are responsible for some cases of idiopathic PAH. Although the discovery of the BMPR2 mutation has enhanced our understanding of PAH, there are several important characteristics of the disease which remain unexplained. For example, the lifetime risk of developing PAH with the BMPR2 mutation is less than 20%, anticipation is observed, and there are both familial and sporadic patients without the BMPR2 mutation who develop PAH[2]. Recently, penetrance has been linked to levels of BMPR2; unaffected carriers (patients with a BMPR2 mutation who do not have PAH) have higher levels of wild-type BMPR2 allele transcript than patients with BMPR2 mutations and PAH[3]. This finding suggests that alterations of gene expression may be relevant to P
The Influence of Web- Versus Paper-based Formats on the Assessment of Tobacco Dependence: Evaluating the Measurement Invariance of the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale
Chris G. Richardson, Joy L. Johnson, Pamela A. Ratner and Bruno D. Zumbo
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mode of administration (internet-based, web survey format versus pencil-and-paper format) on responses to the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS). Responses from 1,484 adolescents that reported using tobacco (mean age 16 years) were examined; 354 (23.9%) participants completed a web-based version and 1,130 (76.1%) completed a paper-based version of the survey. Both surveys were completed in supervised classroom environments. Use of the web-based format was associated with significantly shorter completion times and a small but statistically significant increase in the number of missing responses. Tests of measurement invariance indicated that using a web-based mode of administration did not influence the psychometric functioning of the DTDS. There were no significant differences between the web- and paper-based groups’ ratings of the survey’s length, their question comprehension, and their response accuracy. Overall, the results of the study support the equivalence of scores obtained from web- and paper-based versions of the DTDS in secondary school settings.
第1页/共212970条
每页显示


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.