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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 696 matches for " Josué Laguardia "
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Ra?a, genética & hipertens?o: nova genética ou velha eugenia?
Josué, Laguardia;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702005000200008
Abstract: statistics on the health conditions of human groups have been classified according to racial group and then used to support scientific arguments linking a difference in phenotype to a biological essential of race. epidemiological studies on high blood pressure illustrate the strength that genetic hypotheses can have in assigning a causative role to race. taking these genetic explanations of the etiology of hypertension, i seek to identify: the etiological presuppositions grounding the arguments that racialize this pathology, the alternative hypotheses found in the scientific literature, and the ethical aspects implicit to such studies.
Ra?a e epidemiologia: as estratégias para constru??o de diferen?as biológicas
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100029
Abstract: in the current controversies about race and racial differences in health, epidemiology is seen as the authority that confirms or refutes the scientific truth of these differences. pointing out the current discussions about the limitations of risk factor epidemiology, hegemonic branch of the epidemiological approaches, it is the aim of this article to highlight the ideological character of the causal assumptions and epistemological strategies that restate and reify the racial differences in health based on biological determinism and statistical reductionism. the objective of this work is to highlight the possibilities of contestation of some interpretations about epidemiological findings on racial differences in health, emphasizing the political and ideological aspects of science and providing the investigators with arguments that can help to overcome the racialism that permeates certain causal hypothesis about human diversity and disease.
O uso da variável "ra?a" na pesquisa em saúde
Laguardia, Josué;
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-73312004000200003
Abstract: recent years have witnessed growing interest in the use of racial and ethnic categories in public health. however, this interest has not been accompanied by a more in-depth discussion of the theoretical and practical problems related to the utilization of the "race" variable. although the biological concept of "race" still holds a strong appeal among health researchers, various studies have proposed other forms of defining the concept and applying it to health research. this article seeks to outline the analytical implications of the different definitions and uses of "race" and ethnicity in health research, besides identifying its limits and potentials.
No fio da navalha: anemia falciforme, ra?a e as implica??es no cuidado à saúde
Laguardia, Josué;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2006000100013
Abstract: the political propositions in health for the black population have a recent history in the brazilian political setting, with a special highlight to the national program on sickle cell anemia. this program is an output of political actions launched by the black movement on behalf of the recognition of sickle cell anemia as prevalent disease among brazilian black population. discourses on the sickle cell anemia have been built in the core of that political action, stressing, based in biological and epidemiological assumptions, the racial character of this disease. the objective of this article is to criticize those assumptions, emphasizing the ethical implications of disease racialization.
Ra as e doen as: uma rela o delicada
Josué Laguardia
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/s0103-73312002000200014
Evas o na educa o a distancia
Josué Laguardia,Margareth Portela
ETD : Educa??o Temática Digital , 2009,
Abstract: A demanda por cursos a distancia entre os profissionais que trabalham em tempo parcial ou integral e que necessitam de atualiza es contínuas em uma modalidade de aprendizagem conveniente, flexível, acessível, disponível a qualquer tempo e lugar defronta-se com barreiras à permanência dos alunos nesses cursos e, consequentemente, com altas taxas de evas o. O destaque dado à evas o e as raz es para a sua ocorrência decorrem, em grande medida, da expans o da educa o online e sua associa o à qualidade dos processos de aprendizagem em ambientes virtuais. Entretanto, a diversidade de modelos teóricos utilizados, a extensa lista de variáveis apontadas como preditoras e o número expressivo de investiga es que apresentam resultados divergentes acerca das causas da evas o sinalizam para o caráter complexo e multidimensional desse fen meno. Esse artigo de revis o tem como metas discutir os diferentes conceitos e modelos teóricos e as variáveis identificadas como preditoras nos estudos sobre abandono em ambientes virtuais, bem como assinalar as estratégias para reduzi-la. The demand for distance courses among profesionals who work in full or part time jobs and need an ongoing training in convenient, flexible and accessible ways anytime and anywhere faces with barriers to their permanence in those courses and consequently with high rates of dropout. The significance given to dropout and the reasons for its occurrence is due in large measure to the expansion of online education and its association to the quality os learning process in virtual environments. Nevertheless, the diversity of theoretical models that have been used, the large list of variables pointed out as preditors and the expressive number of investigations that present divergent results about the causes of dropout sign to the complex and multidimensional character of this phenomenon. This review article has the goals of presenting the different concepts and theoretical models and the variables identified in dropout studies on virtual environments, as well as the strategies to reduce it. Keywords Fatores preditores --- Modelos de evas o --- Educa o a distancia --- Predictive factors --- Dropout models --- Distance education
Os Suplementos Saúde na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) no Brasil
Travassos, Claudia;Viacava, Francisco;Laguardia, Josué;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2008000500010
Abstract: socioeconomic, demographic and technological changes as well as their implications for public policies call for the production by governmental institutions for comparable and updated information. population-based information at the national level is essential for planning and monitoring health policies and their constitutional principles, such as universal and equitable access to healthcare. the brazilian national household survey (pnad) is a relevant data source for the knowledge and monitoring of important aspects of health status as well as of the policies directed toward the access and use of health services. in this paper, we present a brief history of the objectives, frequency and geographical coverage of pnad in brazil over the past four decades. emphasis is placed on the main contents of its health supplements in 1981, 1986, 1998 and 2003. the publication of technical and academic texts based on these data shows that they can be used to monitor access and utilization of health services in different geographical and socioeconomic contexts. we argue in favor of an in-depth discussion on the continuity of the historical series initiated in 1998, in face of the implementation in the near future of the household surveys integrated system (sipd) by ibge.
Factores de riesgo para la enfermedad tuberculosa en los casos de sida notificados en Brasil, 1980 a 2000
Laguardia,Josué; Merchán-Hamann,Edgar;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272003000500005
Abstract: background: aids affects the epidemiological characteristics of tuberculosis, due to both the changes in the clinical progress of the jointly affected patients, as well as the increase in the number of tuberculosis cases among individuals having tested positive for hiv/aids. this may lead to an increase in the transmission of the bacillus among the population. this study is aimed at identifying the factors related to the occurrence of tuberculosis among aids cases reported to the brazilian ministry of health. methods: a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted, the aids cases initially having been classified into 2 categories (1) with tuberculosis and (2) without tuberculosis. a comparison was subsequently drawn among 4 groups: (1) no opportunist infection, (2) only tuberculosis (pulmonary and/or disseminated), (3) with other opportunist infections except tuberculosis and (4) with tuberculosis in conjunction with other opportunist infections. the bivariate analysis was adjusted by logistic regression. results: in the regression analysis, the highest tuberculosis prevalences were significantly linked to age under 40, little schooling, living in the southeast region of the country and diagnosis made prior to 1996. the means of transmission most closely associated to the presence of tuberculosis was the use of intravenous drugs, followed by heterosexual relations. when 4 consecutive periods in the evolution of the reporting aids case definition, there had been a decrease in cases with tuberculosis since 1996, as well as significant increases in the proportion of patients with no opportunist infection. conclusions: gender, age and school attendance are predictors of the presence of tuberculosis among opportunist infections.
A experiência de aprendizagem on-line em um curso de qualifica??o profissional em saúde
Laguardia, Josué;Casanova, ?ngela;Machado, Rejane;
Trabalho, Educa??o e Saúde , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-77462010000100006
Abstract: this article examines the perceptions regarding tutor and student attitudes in the learning processes during an on-line professional refresher course. in the study, interviews were carried out among ten students and three tutors of the course by means of semi-structured roadmaps that covered the following aspects: admission to the course, technologies, content, assessment activities, mentoring, mediation, and expectations about the course. the roadmaps were organized into topics that would enable the identification of the structural conditions for the use of the tools that were available in the virtual environment, the types of interaction, the understanding of the content, as well as participants' expectations with respect to the objectives proposed by the course. the interviewees' reports point to important questions to be considered when designing and managing on-line courses, such as the need for periodic adjustments of the course's educational proposal in order to meet the demands of both students and tutors with regard not only to how the content is organized but also to updating it, the means through which the material can be accessed, and the implementation of assessment activities that are consistent with work experience.
Factores de riesgo para la enfermedad tuberculosa en los casos de sida notificados en Brasil, 1980 a 2000
Laguardia Josué,Merchán-Hamann Edgar
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2003,
Abstract: Fundamento: El sida afecta las características epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis, tanto por cambios en su progresión clínica en los enfermos coinfectados, como por el incremento del número de casos de tuberculosis en personas VIH positivos/sida. Esto puede llevar a un aumento de la transmisión del bacilo en la población. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar los factores asociados a la ocurrencia de tuberculosis en casos de sida notificados al Ministerio de la Salud del Brasil. Metodos: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal, siendo los casos de sida clasificados inicialmente en 2 categorías: (1) con tuberculosis y (2) sin tuberculosis. Posteriormente fueron comparados 4 grupos : (1) sin infección oportunista; (2) sólo con tuberculosis (pulmonar y/o diseminada); (3) con otras infección oportunista excepto tuberculosis, y (4) con tuberculosis asociada a otras infecciónes oportunistas. El análisis bivariado fue ajustado por regresión logística. Resultados: En el análisis de regresión, las prevalencias más altas de tuberculosis estaban asociadas significativamente a edad menor de 40 a os, baja escolaridad, residencia en la región sureste del país y diagnóstico efectuado antes de 1996. La forma de transmisión más asociada con la presencia de tuberculosis fue el uso de droga inyectable, seguida de las relaciones heterosexuales. Al comparar 4 períodos consecutivos de evolución de la definición de caso de sida para notificación hubo disminución de casos con tuberculosis desde 1996, así como aumentos significativos en la proporción de pacientes sin infección oportunista. Conclusiones: Sexo, edad y escolaridad son predictores de la presencia de tuberculosis entre las infecciónes oportunistas.
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