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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10946 matches for " Joseph Obua "
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Machine Learning Classification Technique for Famine Prediction
Washington Okori,Joseph Obua
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2011,
Hydrogel amendment to sandy soil reduces irrigation frequency and improves the biomass of Agrostis stolonifera  [PDF]
Hillary Agaba, Lawrence J. B. Orikiriza, Joseph Obua, John. D. Kabasa, Martin Worbes, Aloys Hüttermann
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.24071
Abstract: Soil water potential indicates the water status of the soil and the need for irrigation. The effect of hydrogel amendment to the upper sand soil layer on water infiltration into the lower un-amended sand layer, irrigation frequency, water use efficiency and biomass production of Agrostis stolonifera was investigated. The upper 25 cm sand layer in three identical buckets was amended at 0.4%, 0.2% and a control (no hydrogel) while the lower 25 cm sand layer separated from the upper layer by a wire mesh in the same buckets was un-amended. Agrostis stolonifera seeds were sown in each bucket and adequately irrigated using a hand sprayer. Potential meter electrodes were inserted at three random positions in each of the buckets and subsequent irrigations were done when a pressure of 600 bars was recorded in any of the three treatments. Data were collected on irrigation frequency, water content in the lower layer, water use efficiency and biomass production of Agrostis stolonifera. The mean water potential in the lower 25 cm layer un-amended sand was significantly more negative in the 0.4% hydrogel than in the control. More water content (10%) was recorded in the lower layer under the control bucket than in either the 0.2% and 0.4% hydrogel amended buckets. The frequency of irrigation was three-fold in the control compared to the 0.4% hydrogel amended sand. The hydrogel amended sand significantly increased the shoot and root biomass of Agrostis stolonifera by 2.2 and 4 times respectively compared to the control. The 0.4% hydrogel amendment in sand increased the water use efficiency of grass eight fold with respect to the control. The hydrogel stimulated development of a dense root network and root aggregation that increased contact of the roots with moisture thus improving water use efficiency of hydrogel amended soil. The results suggest that hydrogels can improve sandy soil properties for plant growth by absorbing and keeping water longer in the soil matrix thus reducing watering frequency.
Efficacy of Forestry Conservation Policy on Rural Livelihoods in Uganda: Evidence from Mabira Forest Reserve
Jacob Godfrey Agea,Joseph Obua,Bernard Fungo
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: A study was conducted from 2005-2007 in areas around Mabira Forest Reserve, central Uganda. The objective of this study was assess to: the awareness of the local communities about the current Forest Policy in Uganda the local communities’ opinions about the efficacy of the current Forest Policy and the capacity in terms of training to manage forest resources by local communities. Fifty-two households from 4 villages were interviewied in Najjembe sub-county in Mukono district that surrounding Mabira Forest Reserve. Questions were pre-determined and interviews guided. Individuals were interviewied for about 30-60 min. Primary data were subjected to content analysis, coded and subsequently analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS). About 78% of the respondents were aware of the current Forest Policy in Uganda. About 59% of the respondents said that utilization and socio-economic benefits is strongly supported by the Forest Policy. Half of the respondents disagree that local people have more access to forest products than before under the current Forest Policy. About the same number of the respondents disagree that the forest and tree cover has increased under the present Forest Policy. Capacity to manage forest resources by local communities was weak, majority of the respondents said that none of their household members had received any of training in natural and or plantation forest management. Many institutions including National Forestry Authority (NFA), National Environment Management Authority, Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), Local Governments and Civil Society Organizations were reportedly playing key roles in conservation and management of the forest. There is a need for campaigns in order to realign policies that allows for full participation of not only the government and the local communities in forest conservation and management.
Wild and semi-wild food plants in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda: cultural significance, local perceptions and social implications of their consumption
Jacob Godfrey AGEA,Clement Akais OKIA,Joseph OBUA,John HALL
International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the cultural significances, local perceptions and social implications of consumption of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) in the Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom. Data was collected using household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. It was apparent that the bulk of WSWFPs had moderate (CFSI 20–99) to very high (CFSI ≥ 300) cultural food significance indices. The most outstanding being Bidens pilosa (410.1), Capsicum frutescens (377.0) and Amaranthus spinosus (366.0). Most people perceived WSWFPs as medicinal, nutritious, sources of income; emergency and supplementary foods. Other people, however, perceived some WSWFPs as weedy and problematic in the gardens; toxic and/or fatal if adequate care is not taken during their preparation before consumption. Most people noted that consumption of WSWFPs is often considered as a source of shame and a sign of poverty especially by the elites. Some alleged their consumption is a sign of uncivilized and backwardness associated with loss of respect and dignity in the society. Others regarded WSWFPs as food for the lazy, elderly or handicapped persons. Investigation of the food-medicinal properties of documented WSWFPs that had high food-medicinal role indices (FMRI) is needed. In addition, those plants that had high taste score appreciation indices (TSAI) should be investigated for their nutritional attributes. There is a need for investigation of anti-nutrient factors or toxic compounds that could be present in some of the documented WSWFPs. So far in Uganda, little attempt has been made in this direction. Therefore, attempts to research in this aspect of WSWFPs would be quite rewarding. There is also a need for massive awareness campaigns about the nutritional and or food-medicinal properties of WSWFPs as a measure to reduce the negative perception towards their consumption.
Syntax and Semantics of Babel-17
Steven Obua
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: We present Babel-17, the first programming language for purely functional structured programming (PFSP). Earlier work illustrated PFSP in the framework of a toy research language. Babel-17 takes this earlier work to a new level by showing how PFSP can be combined with pattern matching, object oriented programming, and features like concurrency, lazy evaluation, memoization and support for lenses.
ProofPeer - A Cloud-based Interactive Theorem Proving System
Steven Obua
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: ProofPeer strives to be a system for cloud-based interactive theorem proving. After illustrating why such a system is needed, the paper presents some of the design challenges that ProofPeer needs to meet to succeed. Contexts are presented as a solution to the problem of sharing proof state among the users of ProofPeer. Chronicles are introduced as a way to organize and version contexts.
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Steven Obua
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that mainstream programmers can reap the benefits of purely functional programming like easily exploitable parallelism while using familiar structured programming syntax and without knowing concepts like monads. A second advantage is that professional purely functional programmers can often avoid hard to read functional code by using structured programming syntax that is often easier to parse mentally.
Use and Management of Balanites aegyptiaca in Drylands of Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Paul Okiror,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.15.24
Abstract: There is strong evidence across the drylands of Africa that local communities have utilized Indigenous Fruit Trees (IFTs) including Balanites for generations. IFTs have however, received limited recognition from research and development community. It is now widely accepted that IFTs research needs to embrace local knowledge since this can be a useful resource in solving local problems and contribute to meaningful development. This study explored local use and management of the Balanites aegyptiaca among two contrasting dryland communities in Uganda. A survey involving 150 respondents was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted to capture detailed information on various aspects of Balanites use and management. The results revealed a wealth of information on local use and management of B. aegyptiaca tree and its products. Besides being a market commodity, several uses of the tree products were reported, especially among women and children. Contrary to its early reference as famine food, B. aegyptiaca products were used by most households. The young leaves and ripe fruits were regarded as dependable dry season food sources in both years of food scarcity and plentiful harvest. However, institutional arrangements for management of Balanites and other IFTs are weak and trees are increasingly being cut for fuelwood. There is a need to build on the local peoples knowledge, especially on processing of products so as to realise increased contribution of Balanites to rural livelihoods in the drylands of Uganda and other areas where the species grows.
Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants of Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom of Uganda:Growth Forms, Collection Niches, Parts Consumed, Consumption Patterns, Main Gatherers and Consumers
Jacob Godfrey Agea,Clement Akais Okia,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,James Munga Kimondo,Joseph Obua,John Hall,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Environmental Research Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/erj.2011.74.86
Abstract: Numerous publications provide detailed knowledge of Wild and Semi-Wild Food Plants (WSWFPs) in specific locations in Africa. These studies reveal that WSWFPs are essential components of many Africans diets especially in periods of seasonal food shortage. In this study, researchers present the commonly consumed WSWFPs in Bunyoro-Kitara kingdom of Uganda; their growth forms, collection niches, parts mainly consumed, consumption patterns, main gatherers and the main consumers. A total 385 respondents sampled according to Krejcie and Morgan from two sub-countries (Mutunda and Kiryandongo) of Kibanda country in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom were administered with semi-structured questionnaires. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also held to validate questionnaire responses and to characterise the commonly consumed WSWFPs in terms of their growth forms and life cycles. Excel spreadsheet and MINITAB statistical software were used to analyze the questionnaire responses. The outputs of FGDs were subjected to thorough content analysis. A total of 62 WSWFPs were reported as being consumed. The most frequently mentioned were Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell (73.8%), Amaranthus spinosus L (71.4%), Tamarindus indica L (69.1%). Hibiscus sabdariffa L (51.9%) and Vitex doniana Sweet (50.1%). But in terms of botanical family, members of Solanaceae (9.7%) and Fabaceae (9.7%) families were the most commonly consumed followed by Amaranthaceace (8.1%), Malvaceae (8.1%) and Asteraceae (6.5%) families, respectively. Out of the 62 documented WSWFPs, herbs (51.6%) and shrubs (24.2%) constituted the highest the numbers. Trees, vines/climbers and graminoid were few. Fresh leaves and shoots (97.1%) and fruits (74.3%) were predominantly consumed plant parts in the study area. Most WSWFPs were largely consumed as the main sauce and side dishes after cooking, raw as snacks and as condiments (spices or appetizers). Their consumption as wine and porridge component, beverages, raw in salads, potash salts in other foods and as relishes were infrequent. Women (85.7%) and children (75.1%) were the main gatherers. Few men (10.4%) engaged in gathering activities. Majority (75.8%) of the respondents reported that the gathered plants are consumed nearly by entire household members. About 21% said women are the major consumers. Collection niches varied greatly from forests (forest gaps and margins) (77.8%), bushlands (woodlands) (65.7%), cultivated farmlands (63.2%) and grasslands (59.8%). Other niches included homegardens (homesteads), swampy areas (wetlands), abandoned homesteads and farmlands, wastelands, farm borders, roadsides (footpaths) and areas around animal enclosures/cattle corridors. There is a need for more research on the possibility of adapting, growing and intentionally managing the WSWFPs on farms since large proportion of them are still gathered from out-of-farm niches.
Harvesting and Processing of Balanites aegyptiaca Leaves and Fruits for Local Consumption by Rural Communities in Uganda
Clement Akais Okia,Jacob Godfrey Agea,James Munga Kimondo,Refaat Atalla Ahmed Abohassan,Joseph Obua,Zewge Teklehaimanot
Journal of Food Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/jftech.2011.83.90
Abstract: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. commonly known as desert date is an important multipurpose tree found in most African countries. Like in many parts of dryland Africa, Balanites leaves and fruits provide livelihood support to many rural households in the drylands of Uganda where other options are limited. The young succulent leaves are a dependable dry season vegetable while the seed kernel obtained after cracking the nut is a valuable oil source. Local methods for harvesting and processing of Balanites products were examined as a step towards promoting their wide use and development of improved processing methods. Harvesting and preparation of Balanites leaves in Katakwi district and fruits/nuts collection and oil extraction in Adjumani district, Uganda were documented. The results revealed that Balanites leaf harvesting involves cutting the young branches and twigs and plucking leaves under the tree. Leaves are boiled within 24 h after collection to avoid loss of taste and to shorten boiling time. Boiled leaves have a shelf life of 2 days only. On the other hand, Balanites oil production starts from the fruits or nuts mainly collected from beneath the parent trees. Oil processing entails cracking the nuts to extract seed kernels followed by pounding and roasting of kernels and oil extraction by hot water floatation method. Cracking the hard nuts to obtain seed kernels is a major challenge in oil extraction process. Oil produced is too little to meet the demand. Processing of Balanites oil is a promising option for improving rural livelihoods in the dryland areas of Uganda where Balanites trees grow naturally and are abundant. However, appropriate tools for cracking the hard Balanites nuts are required to increase oil production. Ways of increasing the shelf life of processed Balanites leaves should also be explored.
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