Abstract:
Pseudo-random operators consist of sets of operators that exhibit many of the important statistical features of uniformly distributed random operators. Such pseudo-random sets of operators are most useful whey they may be parameterized and generated on a quantum processor in a way that requires exponentially fewer resources than direct implementation of the uniformly random set. Efficient pseudo-random operators can overcome the exponential cost of random operators required for quantum communication tasks such as super-dense coding of quantum states and approximately secure quantum data-hiding, and enable efficient stochastic methods for noise estimation on prototype quantum processors. This paper summarizes some recently published work demonstrating a random circuit method for the implementation of pseudo-random unitary operators on a quantum processor [Emerson et al., Science 302:2098 (Dec.~19, 2003)], and further elaborates the theory and applications of pseudo-random states and operators.

Abstract:
The quantum dynamics of a classically chaotic model are studied in the approach to the macroscopic limit. The quantum predictions are compared and contrasted with the classical predictions of both Newtonian and Liouville mechanics. The time-domain scaling of the optimal quantum-classical correspondence is analyzed in detail in the case of both classical theories. In both cases the correspondence for observable quantities is shown to break down on a time-scale that increases very slowly (logarithmically) with increasing system size. In the case of quantum-Liouville correspondence such a short time-scale does not imply a breakdown of correspondence since the largest quantum-Liouville differences reached on this time-scale decrease rapidly (as an inverse power) with increasing system size. Therefore the statistical properties of chaotic dynamics are, as expected, well described by quantum theory in the macroscopic limit. In contrast, the largest quantum-Newtonian differences reached on the log time-scale actually increase in proportion to the system size. Since the invariance properties of the Hamiltonian impose functional constraints on the time-varying chaotic coordinates, it is possible to show, moreover, that if the quantum predictions are believed to describe the coordinates of individual chaotic systems, then they also predict macroscopic violations of any kinematic or dynamic constants of the motion. These results for chaotic systems indicate that a valid description of the time-varying properties of individual macroscopic bodies is not available within the standard interpretive framework of quantum theory.

Abstract:
La necesidad urgente de redefinir los clásicos y ya obsoletos modelos teóricos criminalísticos, penales y criminológicos –defensores de la “auxiliaridad” de las ciencias, en detrimento de la más noble interdisciplinariedad científica– impulsa a los teóricos de hoy a reinventar y actualizar el conocimiento criminalístico de cara a los nuevos desafíos que les imponen los tiempos actuales. La Criminalística, hoy por hoy, es una ciencia que goza de plena autonomía científica respecto de las demás áreas del saber humano, que empero puede colaborar armoniosamente con todas ellas en aras de la construcción de una sociedad más justa y humanista. El hecho de que muchos de los conocimientos criminalísticos puedan aplicarse a la resolución de problemas legales o criminológicos no significa que estos sean parcela privativa de aquellos fueros. El conocimiento criminalístico constituye, hoy en día, una gran herramienta teórico-metodológica útil para muchas actividades humanas, dentro de éstas, la resolución de conflictos e incertidumbres científicas en general.

Abstract:
A t-design for quantum states is a finite set of quantum states with the property of simulating the Haar-measure on quantum states, w.r.t. any test that uses at most t copies of a state. We give efficient constructions for approximate quantum t-designs for arbitrary t. We then show that an approximate 4-design provides a derandomization of the state-distinction problem considered by Sen (quant-ph/0512085), which is relevant to solving certain instances of the hidden subgroup problem.

Abstract:
Building on earlier work, we further develop a formalism based on the mathematical theory of frames that defines a set of possible phase-space or quasi-probability representations of finite-dimensional quantum systems. We prove that an alternate approach to defining a set of quasi-probability representations, based on a more natural generalization of a classical representation, is equivalent to our earlier approach based on frames, and therefore is also subject to our no-go theorem for a non-negative representation. Furthermore, we clarify the relationship between the contextuality of quantum theory and the necessity of negativity in quasi-probability representations and discuss their relevance as criteria for non-classicality. We also provide a comprehensive overview of known quasi-probability representations and their expression within the frame formalism.

Abstract:
Several finite dimensional quasi-probability representations of quantum states have been proposed to study various problems in quantum information theory and quantum foundations. These representations are often defined only on restricted dimensions and their physical significance in contexts such as drawing quantum-classical comparisons is limited by the non-uniqueness of the particular representation. Here we show how the mathematical theory of frames provides a unified formalism which accommodates all known quasi-probability representations of finite dimensional quantum systems. Moreover, we show that any quasi-probability representation satisfying two reasonable properties is equivalent to a frame representation and then prove that any such representation of quantum mechanics must exhibit either negativity or a deformed probability calculus.

Abstract:
We describe a simple randomized benchmarking protocol for quantum information processors and obtain a sequence of models for the observable fidelity decay as a function of a perturbative expansion of the errors. We are able to prove that the protocol provides an efficient and reliable estimate of an average error-rate for a set operations (gates) under a general noise model that allows for both time and gate-dependent errors. We determine the conditions under which this estimate remains valid and illustrate the protocol through numerical examples.

Abstract:
A unification of the set of quasiprobability representations using the mathematical theory of frames was recently developed for quantum systems with finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, in which it was proven that such representations require negative probability in either the states or the effects. In this article we extend those results to Hilbert spaces of infinite dimension, for which the celebrated Wigner function is a special case. Hence, this article presents a unified framework for describing the set of possible quasiprobability representations of quantum theory, and a proof that the presence of negativity is a necessary feature of such representations.

Abstract:
In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin's measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in which it is possible to fully determine the state of a system via specific sets of 'two-slit' experiments.

Abstract:
The question of how irreversibility can emerge as a generic phenomena when the underlying mechanical theory is reversible has been a long-standing fundamental problem for both classical and quantum mechanics. We describe a mechanism for the appearance of irreversibility that applies to coherent, isolated systems in a pure quantum state. This equilibration mechanism requires only an assumption of sufficiently complex internal dynamics and natural information-theoretic constraints arising from the infeasibility of collecting an astronomical amount of measurement data. Remarkably, we are able to prove that irreversibility can be understood as typical without assuming decoherence or restricting to coarse-grained observables, and hence occurs under distinct conditions and time-scales than those implied by the usual decoherence point of view. We illustrate the effect numerically in several model systems and prove that the effect is typical under the standard random-matrix conjecture for complex quantum systems.