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Understanding the mechanism of ionic gelation for synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles using qualitative techniques
Kunjachan Sijumon,Jose Sajan
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: We focused on qualitatively exploring the basic mechanisms involved in the Ionic gelation (IG) process, a method quite frequently used for synthesis of chitosan (CS) microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs). We synthesized CS MPs and NPs using the Ionic gelation and microemulsion methods, and characterized the CS NPs and MPs at different stages of formulation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was carried out to confirm effective cross-linking. Moreover, for the first time, we reported the mechanisms of IG technique for CS NP and MP synthesis with qualitative proof: (1) Complex formation of long chain oligomers with polyanions (long beaded structures) (2) cleavages at weak sites on addition of acid (HCl) (3) formation of CS NPs on chain scission. The versatility of IG for the synthesis of CS MPs and NPs was proved and compared with the microemulsion technique, thereby enhancing the wide spectrum of its use in therapeutics and biomedical applications.
Variation in RASSF1A Hypermethylation in Breast Cancer Patients under Various Stages of Treatment
Anne Mary Sajan,Joe Joseph,Greeshma Jose,Anu Yamuna Joseph
Advanced Biotech , 2013,
Abstract: The need for new breast cancer screening tools which are accurate and sensitive is indisputably high due to limitations in the current screening procedures. Detection of breast cancer is now possible only after the mild progression of the disease. Use of molecular markers such as DNA methylation as a diagnostic technique is recommended since methylation is a frequent event in breast cancer and can be detected at an early stage. Breast cancer patients under various stages of treatment and healthy individuals were enrolled for this study. Plasma DNA was isolated from both cancer patients and healthy individuals (controls), since DNA in plasma is thought to originate from necrotic and apoptic tumor cells. The RASSF1A gene in most of the breast cancer patients were found to be methylated in accordance with the stages of their treatment while absence of methylation was observed in control samples. It was observed that the methylation of RASSF1A gene was reversed during the course of treatment. This study suggests that a non-invasive technique like plasma DNA analysis for the detection of methylation of RASSF1A gene may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for breast cancer.
A Neural Network based Character Recognition System for Indian Standard High Security Number Plates
Varsha S,Sajan Ambadiyil
International Journal of Image Processing and Visual Communication , 2012, DOI: ijipvcv1i102
Abstract: Automatic Number Plate Recognition or ANPR is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read the number plates on vehicles. This system is designed with a neural network which is trained to recognize all the characters that can be found in an Indian Standard High Security Number Plate and is implemented using MATLAB.
Parsplana, open sky and anterior vitrectomy
Ittyerah T,George Sajan
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1983,
Abstract:
Wounded Warrior Rescuing Thakur Ram from Deadly Epidemic
Sajan Kumar Karn
Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/av.v1i0.5313
Abstract: Educational institutions are considered change agents for they are shouldered with the responsibility of transforming individuals, society, nation and also the world. Nevertheless, what happens if the change agents themselves do not conform to the changes has been well said by Wilson in the above quote. There is no doubt to the fact that education around the globe has undergone sea changes in perspectives and practices both but Thakur Ram Multiple Campus, Birgunj, one of the biggest educational foundations in the country that had its name and fame for the academic brilliance in the times of yore, feels to be driving the same bullock carts while sports cars are being rolled down around the globe. In this composition, I have endeavored to unveil those orthodox practices, as I have perceived, against the backdrop of the breaking educational paradigms and propose to deconstruct conformist prototypes to prevent it from being more infamous. Keywords Digital literacy, banking education, subversive, paradigm, critical thinking DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/av.v1i0.5313 Academic Voices 2011; 1: 61-70
A detailed study of Gamma-ray emission from Cassiopeia A using VERITAS
Sajan Kumar,for the VERITAS Collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been considered the leading candidate sites for the acceleration of cosmic rays within the Galaxy through the process of diffusive shock acceleration. The connection between SNRs and cosmic rays is supported by the detection of high energy (HE; 100 MeV to 100 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; 100 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays from young and middle-aged SNRs. However, the interpretation of the gamma-ray observations is not unique. This is due to the fact that gamma rays can be produced by electrons through non-thermal Bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering, and by protons through proton-proton collisions and subsequent neutral pion decay. To disentangle and quantify the contributions of electrons and protons to the gamma-ray flux, it is necessary to measure precisely the spectra and morphology of SNRs over a broad range of gamma-ray energies. Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is one such young SNR ( 350 years) which is bright in radio and X-rays. It has been detected as a bright point source in HE gamma rays by Fermi-LAT and in VHE gamma rays by HEGRA, MAGIC and VERITAS. Cas A has been observed with VERITAS for more than 60 hours - three times the published exposure. The observations were taken between 2007 and 2013 over a wide range of zenith angles. In particular, half of the total data were taken under large zenith angles to boost the effective area above few TeV. Here, we will present the detailed spectral and morphological results from the complete dataset.
A rapid and versatile method for solvothermal synthesis of Sb2O3 nanocrystals under mild conditions
K. Kaviyarasu,D. Sajan,Prem Anand Devarajan
Applied Nanoscience , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s13204-012-0156-y
Abstract: A very simple strategy for preparing Sb2O3 nanostructures under ambient aqueous condition is presented. Sb2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 44 nm were synthesised using wet chemical method. Senarmontite cubical structure Sb2O3 nanocrystals have been selectively harvested in high yield. The as-obtained nanoproducts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet–visible near infrared spectroscopy (UV–Vis-NIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The size of the Sb2O3 nanoparticles was found to be in the range 44–385 nm from Debye–Scherrer equation. The X-ray density, surface area and porosity of Sb2O3 nanocrystals were found to be 2.969 g/cm3, 2.0208 × 1014 cm2/g and 1.0185 × 10 3 m, respectively. From the UV–Vis-NIR analysis, the band gap of Sb2O3 nanocrystals was estimated to be 5.6 eV at 220 nm. The various functional groups in the samples were identified using FTIR spectral studies. The SEM images showed a very spiky morphology. Very small spherical-shaped objects were clearly observed within these structures. The extinction coefficient, real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant, electric susceptibility and the refractive index of Sb2O3 nanocrystals were 7.605 × 10 9, 0.2851 × 10 17, 3.747 × 10 8, 0.48322 and 2.4636, respectively.
Aphakic malignant glaucoma
Thomas Ravi,Alexander T,Thomas Sajan
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1985,
Abstract:
Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis due to prolonged steroid intake causing cauda equina syndrome
Mahmood Nabil,Shetty Shiran,Andrews Sajan
Neurology India , 2010,
Abstract:
Efficacy of 2-Phenoxyethanol as an Anaesthetic for Adult Redline Torpedo Fish, Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865)
Anna Mercy Thoranam Varkey,Sajan Sajeevan
International Journal of Zoology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/315029
Abstract: Efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol for redline torpedo fish exposed to five concentrations (200, 300, 400, 500, and 600?μlL?1) was evaluated. The time periods necessary for each characteristic stage of induction and recovery were recorded. Results indicated that the induction time of the fish exposed to five anaesthetic concentrations significantly decreased with increasing concentration but recovery time was independent of concentration. Concentration of 500?μlL?1 (induction time: 173 ± 7 and recovery time: 129 ± 41 seconds) was determined as the minimum effective concentration that induces anaesthesia in less than 3 minutes. 1. Introduction Anaesthesia is an effective method to minimize stress or physical damage caused during handling, transport, grading, weighing, and induction of spawning [1]. L. G. Ross and B. Ross [2] defined anaesthesia as a state caused by an applied external agent resulting in a loss of sensation through depression of the nervous system. The use of anaesthetics is primarily for the purpose of holding fish immobile while the animal is being handled for experiments. When choosing an anaesthetic, a number of considerations should be taken into account such as its efficacy, cost, availability, ease of use, and side effects on fish, humans, and the environment [3, 4]. Presently, there are many anaesthetics available for aquatic animals, including MS-222, benzocaine, quinaldine, chlorobutanol, 2-phenoxyethanol, eugenol, and metomidate [3]. 2-Phenoxyethanol is relatively inexpensive and remains viable in long-term exposure [5] and is also easily available compared to other anaesthetics. Deacon et al. [6] recommended 2-phenoxyethanol as a highly suitable anaesthetic for repeatedly exposed fishes. Over the last three decades, studies have evaluated the anaesthetic efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol in various fish species [7–14]. According to Topic Popovic et al. [15], it is necessary to have a better understanding of safety margins, induction, and recovery times for many fish species in order to achieve optimal application. Sahyadria denisonii (or Puntius denisonii), an ornamental fish popularly known as redline torpedo fish or Miss Kerala, is endemic to the rivers flowing through the Western Ghats hotspots of India. The species is much sought after in the international ornamental fish trade and is listed as “Endangered” in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [16]. Captive breeding is considered to be one of the solutions for ensuring sustainability and conserving wild populations of this endangered species [17]. In fisheries, various
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