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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 200797 matches for " Jose G. Pires "
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Participation of 5-HT and AT1 Receptors within the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla in the Maintenance of Hypertension in the Goldblatt 1 Kidney-1 Clip Model
Cássia T. Bergamaschi,Nyam F. Silva,Jose G. Pires,Ruy R. Campos,Henrique A. Futuro Neto
International Journal of Hypertension , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/723939
Abstract: The hypothesis that changes in neurotransmission within the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are important to maintain the high blood pressure (BP) was tested in Goldblatt one kidney-one clip hypertension model (1K-1C). Male Wistar rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.2?g/kg, i.v.), and the effects of bilateral microinjections into the RVLM of the following drugs were measured in 1K-1C or control groups: glutamate (0.1?mol/L, 100?nL) and its antagonist kynurenic acid (0.02?mol/L, 100?nL), the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan (0.01?mol/L, 100?nL), and the nonselective 5-HT receptor antagonist methiothepin (0.06?mol/L, 100?nL). Experiments in 1K-1C rats were performed 6 weeks after surgery. In anesthetized rats glutamate response was larger in hypertensive than in normotensive rats (H: ; N: ?mmHg). In contrast, kynurenic acid microinjection into the RVLM did not cause any change in BP in either group. The blockade of either AT1 or 5-HT receptors within the RVLM decreased BP only in 1K-1C rats. A largest depressor response was caused by 5-HT receptor blockade. The data suggest that 5-HT and AT1 receptors act tonically to drive RVLM in 1K-1C rats, and these actions within RVLM contribute to the pathogenesis of this model of hypertension. 1. Introduction The importance of sympathetic nervous system activation in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been demonstrated, and the therapeutic value of sympathetic nervous inhibition in hypertensive patients is already evident and has been widely studied [1]. Ongoing activity of premotor rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons is responsible for the tonic generation of sympathetic vasomotor tone; inhibition of RVLM neurons causes a large decrease in both arterial blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nervous system activity, while stimulation of this medullary region increases sympathetic vasomotor outflow and BP [2, 3]. Therefore, changes in the local neurotransmission within the RVLM can be a mechanism involved in the sympathetic activation in hypertension. Previous studies demonstrated that microinjection into the RVLM of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists has no effect on basal level of BP [4]. This fact has been interpreted as suggesting that the ongoing RVLM activity is not dependent on EAA inputs to the RVLM. However, we showed previously that, in Goldblatt 2-kidneys, one-clip (2K1C) model, microinjection of kynurenic acid, a broad spectrum EAA receptor antagonist, into the RVLM, reduced BP to the same extent as autonomic blockade [5]. Similar results were later shown in SHR
Comparison between static and dynamic warm-up exercise regimes on lower limb muscle power  [PDF]
Jose Shelton, G. V. Praveen Kumar
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.12019
Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare static and dynamic warm-up regimes on lower limb muscle power and thereby the perform-ance of the individual. Methodology: Twenty eight (28) subjects were assigned into groups consisting of 2 members. From each group, 1 subject performed the static stretching and the other subject performed dynamic stretching as warm-up. This was followed by non-counter movement jumps on a force platform and the vertical jump heights were recorded. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and paired t-test at 0.05 alpha. Result: The results showed that dynamic stretching as warm-up causes significant increase (p=0.01) in the vertical jump height as compared to static stretching (p=0.03). Discussion: The increase in vertical jump height could be related to the increase in force pro-duction which plays an important role during the vertical jump test. On the other hand the decrease in vertical jump height following static stretching could be attributed to a decrease in the force production in the muscles. Conclusion: Dynamic warm-up increases the vertical lump height, whereas static stretching decreases the jump height of the athlete.
Extending the Barnes-Rivers Operators to D=3 Topological Gravity
C. Pinheiro,G. O. Pires
Physics , 1992,
Abstract: The spin-projector operators for symmetric rank-2 tensors are reassessed in connection with the issue of topologically massive gravity. The original proposal by Barnes and Rivers is generalised to account for D-dimensional Einstein gravity and 3-dimensional Chern-Simons massive gravitation.
Enfermedades transmisibles: Recomendaciones para el manejo de los contactos epidemiológicos
Revista chilena de infectología , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-10182001000100007
Abstract: the main epidemiological concepts related to the transmission of communicable infectious diseases of importance in chile are reviewed. guidelines to control their spread among contacts are summarized with a personal view of the author for some of them
Metisazona (Marboran) en el tratamiento de la diseminación de la vacuna antivariólica
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1975,
Waltzing with the Army: From Marcos to Arroyo
Raymund Jose G. Quilop
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2001,
Abstract: The relationship between civilian political leadership and the military has changed in character from the Marcos dictatorship to the Macapagal-Arroyo presidency. The military, ideally a professional and depoliticized institution, found itself in conflicting roles in governance. President Ferdinand Marcos used the military to pursue personal interests. After the first EDSA revolt, the principle of civilian superiority was restored but sections in the AFP responded with a series a coup d'etats against the I govemment of President Corazon Aquino. President Fidel Ramos, a former general, found difficulty in limiting the role of the military in government and appointed retired officers in key positions. His government eventually emphasized the role of the armed forces in national development and pushed for the modernization of the AFP, a program sidelined by the previous administration. President Joseph Estrada was more supportive of the military campaign in Mindanao but eventually lost the, support of the AFP in EDSA II. So far the administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appears to have a better understanding of the military.The president, a consistent visitor of the military camps, increased the benefits of military personnel and appointed the outgoing AFP Chief of Staff, General AngeloReyes, as Secretary of National Defense. When pro-Estrada supporters clamored, for the latter's return in the so-called EDSA III, the military stood by President Macapagal-Arroyo Civilian political leadership played a great role in shaping the mindset of and their relationship with military officers. They must be knowledgeable and sensitive to the military culture and psyche. The ability to govern effectively and cultivate the culture within the armed forces that subscribes to civilian authority is necessary for harmonious civil-military relations, particularly for democratic societies like the Philippines.
Information and Security: Arguments for a Regional Information Network
Raymund Jose G. Quilop
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1995,
Abstract: In the information age, the ability to gather, process and disseminate information plays vital part in the enhancement of regional security. Information being the strategic resource in the 21st century, ASEAN member-states must recognize the indispensability of information-sharing and strive to install a regional information network by interlinking their respective national information systems. Despite potential drawbacks, the establishment if a regional information network will give ASEAN states a sense of community and certainty thereby inducing greater cooperation, transparency and interdependence among them.
Enfermedades transmisibles: Recomendaciones para el manejo de los contactos epidemiológicos GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CONTACTS IN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Revista chilena de infectología , 2001,
Abstract: Se presentan los principales conceptos epidemiológicos relativos a la transmisión de las enfermedades infecciosas transmisibles de importancia en Chile. Se proporciona en detalle las recomendaciones para el control de su diseminación entre los contactos con una visión personal del autor en algunos casos The main epidemiological concepts related to the transmission of communicable infectious diseases of importance in Chile are reviewed. Guidelines to control their spread among contacts are summarized with a personal view of the author for some of them
Plasma Membrane Transporters in Modern Liver Pharmacology
Jose J. G. Marin
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/428139
Plasma Membrane Transporters in Modern Liver Pharmacology
Jose J. G. Marin
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/428139
Abstract: The liver plays a crucial role in the detoxification of drugs used in the treatment of many diseases. The liver itself is the target for drugs aimed to modify its function or to treat infections and tumours affecting this organ. Both detoxification and pharmacological processes occurring in the liver require the uptake of the drug by hepatic cells and, in some cases, the elimination into bile. These steps have been classified as detoxification phase 0 and phase III, respectively. Since most drugs cannot cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion, the involvement of transporters is mandatory. Several members of the superfamilies of solute carriers (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, with a minor participation of other families of transporters, account for the uptake and efflux, respectively, of endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds across the basolateral and apical membranes of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. These transporters are also involved in the sensitivity and refractoriness to the pharmacological treatment of liver tumours. An additional interesting aspect of the role of plasma membrane transporters in liver pharmacology regards the promiscuity of many of these carriers, which accounts for a variety of drug-drug, endogenous substances-drug and food components-drug interactions with clinical relevance. 1. Introduction Few drugs with very different chemical structure, but with the shared characteristic of high lipophilicity, can enter the cells by simple diffusion across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. This is not, however, the common rule. Owing to the fact that the majority of drugs are polar compounds, the participation in their uptake of plasma membrane transporters, belonging to the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily, is required. This includes approximately 300 genes classified into 43 families [1]. Owing to the large variety of carriers involved in transport processes, either by facilitated diffusion or by secondary active symport or antiport concentrative mechanisms, and to their marked overlap in substrate specificity, at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes there is a gate for the uptake of almost every drug [2]. The presence in the liver cells of the required transporter, mainly at the basolateral or sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes (Figure 1), and its level of expression under pathological circumstances, when the drug is needed, determine the bioavailability and hence the efficacy of the pharmacological agent. Figure 1: Major transporters involved in drug uptake by hepatocytes. Regarding the overall detoxification
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