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Escherichia coli RecA has been considered traditionally a cellular protein with multiple vital functions working to ensure the maintenance of integrity of genome in each individual bacterial cell as well as promoting swarming migration in collectivity. On the contrary, recently it has been described that RecA promotes cellular apoptotic-like death (ALD), a pathway of programmed cellular death (PCD). In fact, RecA has been dubbed as the major apoptotic executor in E. coli. From these studies, RecA emerges as a prototypical Gin/Gan protein that despite of their intrinsic vital and lethal anfi-funcionality becomes in a WISE factor: a Worker to Integrate Survival and Evolution in E. coli evolving populations living in community. Here, I provide a review of recent experimental and conceptual advances trying to understand these RecA’s antagonistic roles in appearance contradictory under a unified biological vision.
This paper first explores the
implications of the rise of emerging markets on energy and, then, on energy
security. Nowadays, emerging economies are key players in the international
political arena, in the global economy and, in energy markets. The new economic
scenario, which favors emerging markets, produces a mirror image in the
business world. The new oil and natural gas titans are now public companies
from those emerging countries, while private companies from the developed world
play second fiddle. This fact also affects energy security. This paper points
out that oil is still the most vulnerable source of energy. Yet in this new
context, the International Energy Agency must actively collaborate with China
and India (to say the least) to create an efficient policy for energy security.
Finally, this paper suggests that Russia is the world cornerstone of energy
supply. And the OPEC continues to play the most relevant role in the oil
markets as it has for the past 40 years.