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A correlation has been previously described between bifidobacteria counts before and after the use of a dietary additive in human studies. However, to our knowledge no information on this topic has yet been reported in animals, and no information exists either on similar possible correlations of bacterial groups other than bifidobacteria. The potential prebiotic effects of di-D-fructose dianhydride (DFA)-enriched caramels have been previously reported in laboratory animals, poultry and pigs. In the present work, twelve growing male castrated pigs (41.8 ± 1.9 kg mean BW) were fed in succession on a control (no additive) or DFA-enriched caramel (20 g/kg) containing diets. Another group of 10 pigs (38.0 ± 3.7 kg mean BW) fed on a control diet without any additive was used as negative control. Bacterial log10 number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene was determined in fecal samples by using qPCR. Increased (P< 0.05) lactobacilli,Clostridium coccoides/Eu-bacterium rectaleand bacteroides group log10 number of copies were determined in fecal samples of pigs fed on the caramel containing diet compared with non-caramel controls. In addition, for all bacterial groups studied microbiological values co-variated with initial counts and, except for enterobacteria, variations in the fecal bacterial numbers after caramel supplementation correlated (P< 0.05) with the fecal numbers before supplementation. In conclusion, the supplementation of pig diets with DFA-enriched caramels induced significant increases in the fecal number of copies of bacterial groups regarded as beneficial, and variations in the fecal number of copies correlated with the initial fecal number of copies.