World increasing population and use of energy for transportation and electricity are demanding more extensive and more efficient use of land for agriculture; aiming to both food and biofuel supplies. This communication assesses the possible improvements in soil fertility, capture of greenhouse gas, and rainfall, as a result of the large scale terrestrial application of pyrogenic carbon aiming for desert greening. Fossil hydrocarbon coke is taken into account for this proposal because of the exhaustion of light petroleum proven reserves that is leading to a scenario of abundant coke production from the processing of non-conventional reserves.
An analysis of the minimum air temperature behavior was carried out for the southern tip of South America and the western side of the Antarctica Peninsula. Punta Arenas shows an overall annual warming of 0.15°C per decade during the 1960-2010 period, although this occurred mainly in the summer and winter seasons. The trend of the air temperature in the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula shows an increase until around 2000, but the warming rate during the last 2001-2010 decade has been less than previous decades; in particular, meteorological stations in King George Island show slight cooling. The lineal annual warming per decade as shown by Bellingshausen, Verndsky/Faraday and Rothera stations are 0.26°C ± 0.75°C, 0.55°C ± 1.26°C and 0.69°C ± 1.31°C; for the respectively, 1969-2010, 1951-2010 and 1978-2010 periods. These rates of warming are slightly lower than those found for the same stations but for the 1969-2000, 1951-2000 and 1978-2000 periods.
Under a broad comprehension of
Software Engineering, it is preferred the term software life cycle instead of
just software production. The reason is that cycle starts at software conception
and stops when the software is relegated. Given contemporary companies’ market
strategies of focusing on their competitive advantages, most of them have
externalized their software production to outsourced services. Therefore, the
call for software tenders has become a common step in the software life cycle.
In this paper, we present a tool which aids non-experts to specify call for
software tenders. The motivation was Chile situation of most of rural and
semi-urban city halls which do not have engineering teams to build call for
software tenders. We describe the problem in terms of lack of competitiveness
and empty biddings generated by low quality calls for tenders. As a second
step, we show the technical considerations to develop the proposed tool and its
features. We include an initial tool perception from a first group of users.
methodology to quantify the spatial resolution in 2-D seismic surface wave
tomographic problems is proposed in this study. It is based on both the
resolving kernels computed via full resolution matrix and the concept of Full
Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of a Gaussian function. This method allows estimating
quantitatively the spatial resolution at any cell of a gridded area. It was
applied in the northeastern Brazil and the estimated spatial resolution range
is in agreement with all previous surface wave investigations in the South
Climate change alters all sustainable development dimensions for a given nation or region, there- fore, decreasing emission of GHG not only is an environmental issue, but also has implication on the economic, social and political matters. In 2009, the Copenhagen Accord adopted the 2°C global warming increase limit as an international policy, being this threshold of the maximum allowable warming to avoid dangerous and irreversible anthropogenic interference in the climate system. The observed monthly average CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere crossed the 400 parts per million thresholds, for the first time in April and May 2013. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate changing GHG emissions, and therefore moving from fossil fuel to clean energy production should be a priority challenge for all countries. For that, it is necessary to develop a low carbon economy for confronting the climate change.