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A Graph-Theoretical Approach to Calculate Vibrational Energies of Atomic and Subatomic Systems  [PDF]
Jorge Galvez
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2012.24028
Abstract: One of the challenges still pending in string theory and other particle physics related fields is the accurate prediction of the masses of the elementary particles defined in the standard model. In this paper an original algorithm to assign graphs to each of these particles is proposed. Based on this mapping, we demonstrate that certain indices associated with the topology of the graph (graph theoretical indices) are very effective in predicting the masses of the particles. Specifically, the spectral moments of the graph adjacency matrix weighted by edge degrees play a key role in the excellent correlations found. Moreover, the same topological pattern is found in other well known quantum systems such as the particle in a box and the vibrational frequencies of diatomic molecules, such as hydrogen. The results shown here open a suggestive pathway for the use of graph-theoretical approaches in predicting properties of elementary particles and other physical systems, which seem to match similar topological patterns.
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Application of Pyrogenic Carbon in Soil  [PDF]
Jorge Laine
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410137
Abstract:

World increasing population and use of energy for transportation and electricity are demanding more extensive and more efficient use of land for agriculture; aiming to both food and biofuel supplies. This communication assesses the possible improvements in soil fertility, capture of greenhouse gas, and rainfall, as a result of the large scale terrestrial application of pyrogenic carbon aiming for desert greening. Fossil hydrocarbon coke is taken into account for this proposal because of the exhaustion of light petroleum proven reserves that is leading to a scenario of abundant coke production from the processing of non-conventional reserves.

Development of a “Space-Saving Model” for a One-Family Dwelling Case Study of Japanese Architecture with Space Limitations  [PDF]
Jorge Romero
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2015.34020
Abstract: The rapid globalization of building standards and codes in regards of contemporary housing and the growth of populations during this century demands an immediate response from designers in terms of space rationalizing to fulfill the forthcoming lack of architectural habitat on earth. The differences in culture imply a difference in the way of living, and the way of living indicates a contrast in the way of designing houses. A western house does not need an extra room covered with tatami mats for relaxation as a modern Japanese home would most likely do, as a separate living-like space. Organizations, among others, like CABO (Council of American Building Officials) and, in our specific case study, BCJ (Building Center of Japan) together with BRI (Building Research Institute) try to overcome these differences to provide better housing conditions to the world through the formulation of global designing and building standards. International publications like UBC (Uniform Building Code), IBC (International Building Code), OTFDC (One and Two Family Dwelling Code) and BSLJ (Building Standard Law of Japan) have also played an important role to globalize safety and design codes to better understand global housing under normal conditions. However, space limitations and concentration of human masses in mega cities result in a crucial new consideration: the urgent need of investigating the possibilities of rationally living within less space. Minimums provided by most codes do not take into account the space issue and overpopulation of large cities. Providing with some design recommendations for one-family dwellings has been the departure point and main motivation to carry out this case study based on actual buildings with the lack of space conditioning in a country where these conditions turn into reality.
Applications of Mogulskii, and Kurtz-Feng Large Deviation Results to Risk Reserve Processes with Aggregate Claims  [PDF]
Jorge Garcia, Ana Meda
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.312A291
Abstract: In this paper we examine the large deviations principle (LDP) for sequences of classic Cramér-Lundberg risk processes under suitable time and scale modifications, and also for a wide class of claim distributions including (the non-super- exponential) exponential claims. We prove two large deviations principles: first, we obtain the LDP for risk processes on D[0,1] with the Skorohod topology. In this case, we provide an explicit form for the rate function, in which the safety loading condition appears naturally. The second theorem allows us to obtain the LDP for Aggregate Claims processes on D[0,) with a different time-scale modification. As an application of the first result we estimate the ruin probability, and for the second result we work explicit calculations for the case of exponential claims.
Decadal Changes in the Near-Surface Air Temperature in the Western Side of the Antarctic Peninsula  [PDF]
Jorge F. Carrasco
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.33029
Abstract:

An analysis of the minimum air temperature behavior was carried out for the southern tip of South America and the western side of the Antarctica Peninsula. Punta Arenas shows an overall annual warming of 0.15°C per decade during the 1960-2010 period, although this occurred mainly in the summer and winter seasons. The trend of the air temperature in the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula shows an increase until around 2000, but the warming rate during the last 2001-2010 decade has been less than previous decades; in particular, meteorological stations in King George Island show slight cooling. The lineal annual warming per decade as shown by Bellingshausen, Verndsky/Faraday and Rothera stations are 0.26°C ± 0.75°C, 0.55°C ± 1.26°C and 0.69°C ± 1.31°C; for the respectively, 1969-2010, 1951-2010 and 1978-2010 periods. These rates of warming are slightly lower than those found for the same stations but for the 1969-2000, 1951-2000 and 1978-2000 periods.

Computer Aided Call for Tenders: A Tool for Software Bidding  [PDF]
Jorge Hochstetter, Carlos Cares
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.77055
Abstract:

Under a broad comprehension of Software Engineering, it is preferred the term software life cycle instead of just software production. The reason is that cycle starts at software conception and stops when the software is relegated. Given contemporary companies’ market strategies of focusing on their competitive advantages, most of them have externalized their software production to outsourced services. Therefore, the call for software tenders has become a common step in the software life cycle. In this paper, we present a tool which aids non-experts to specify call for software tenders. The motivation was Chile situation of most of rural and semi-urban city halls which do not have engineering teams to build call for software tenders. We describe the problem in terms of lack of competitiveness and empty biddings generated by low quality calls for tenders. As a second step, we show the technical considerations to develop the proposed tool and its features. We include an initial tool perception from a first group of users.

A Method to Estimate Spatial Resolution in 2-D Seismic Surface Wave Tomographic Problems  [PDF]
Jorge L. de Souza
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.58068
Abstract:

A novel methodology to quantify the spatial resolution in 2-D seismic surface wave tomographic problems is proposed in this study. It is based on both the resolving kernels computed via full resolution matrix and the concept of Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of a Gaussian function. This method allows estimating quantitatively the spatial resolution at any cell of a gridded area. It was applied in the northeastern Brazil and the estimated spatial resolution range is in agreement with all previous surface wave investigations in the South America continent.

The Challenge of Changing to a Low-Carbon Economy: A Brief Overview  [PDF]
Jorge F. Carrasco
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.51001
Abstract:

Climate change alters all sustainable development dimensions for a given nation or region, there- fore, decreasing emission of GHG not only is an environmental issue, but also has implication on the economic, social and political matters. In 2009, the Copenhagen Accord adopted the 2°C global warming increase limit as an international policy, being this threshold of the maximum allowable warming to avoid dangerous and irreversible anthropogenic interference in the climate system. The observed monthly average CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere crossed the 400 parts per million thresholds, for the first time in April and May 2013. The energy sector is the single largest source of climate changing GHG emissions, and therefore moving from fossil fuel to clean energy production should be a priority challenge for all countries. For that, it is necessary to develop a low carbon economy for confronting the climate change.

Basic Engineering of a Two-Stage Process for Co-Upgrading Natural Gas and Petroleum Coke  [PDF]
Jorge Laine, Maria Tosta
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.52014
Abstract: This communication highlights the possibility of using a novel two-stage process for the co-upgrading of natural gas and petroleum coke into liquid hydrocarbons. The first stage consists of the catalytic dehydroaromatization of methane characterized by producing hydrogen and aromatics: benzene, naphtalene, toluene, etc. The non-reacted methane plus hydrogen and aromatics produced in the first stage are directed to the second stage to react with the petroleum coke. Basic engineering analysis of proposed two-stage process suggests light petroleum production of 160,000 bbl/day from 20,000 ton/day of petroleum coke actually by-produced from Venezuelan Orinoco’s heavy oil belt. Residual coke should be volatiles free therefore useful as a calcined coke.
O ensino de línguas baseado em tarefas e o foco na forma: contributos para uma didática do PL2 em cabo verde
Jorge Pinto,Jorge Pinto
Linguarum Arena : Revista do Programa Doutoral em Didáctica de Línguas da Universidade do Porto , 2011,
Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to present a reflection on the Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and the focus on form approach due to the importance they currently have in the learning of an L2 and because they are thought to allow a more efficient and effective learning of Portuguese in Cape Verde. The TBLT aims to develop the students’ interlanguage through the execution of a task in which the students need the language to solve it. By resorting to the focus on form approach we want to call students’ attention to the linguistic forms that come up spontaneously in activities whose main focus is the meaning, which is the case of TBLT. Based on these theoretical principles, we present the partial results of a study that counted with the participation of three Cape Verdean teachers who have adopted the TBLT for a month and have included a focus on form approach for the teaching of grammar as an alternative to the more traditional teaching that predominates in the language less the main purpose of this article is to present a reflection on the Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and the focus on form approach due to the importance they currently have in the learning of an L2 and because they are thought to allow a more efficient and effective learning of Portuguese in Cape Verde. The TBLT aims to develop the students’ interlanguage through the execution of a task in which the students need the language to solve it. By resorting to the focus on form approach we want to call students’ attention to the linguistic forms that come up spontaneously in activities whose main focus is the meaning, which is the case of TBLT. Based on these theoretical principles, we present the partial results of a study that counted with the participation of three Cape Verdean teachers who have adopted the TBLT for a month and have included a focus on form approach for the teaching of grammar as an alternative to the more traditional teaching that predominates in the language lessons.
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