Abstract:
Using the properties of the table sieve, we can determine whether all given number, positive integer G, is a prime and whether it is possible to factor it out.

Abstract:
We introduce a new composite iterative scheme by the viscosity approximation method for nonexpansive mappings and monotone mappings in a Hilbert space. It is proved that the sequence generated by the iterative scheme converges strongly to a common point of set of fixed points of nonexpansive mapping and the set of solutions of variational inequality for an inverse-strongly monotone mappings, which is a solution of a certain variational inequality. Our results substantially develop and improve the corresponding results of [Chen et al. 2007 and Iiduka and Takahashi 2005]. Essentially a new approach for finding the fixed points of nonexpansive mappings and solutions of variational inequalities for monotone mappings is provided.

Abstract:
We introduce a new general iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions of variational inequality problem for an inverse-strongly monotone mapping and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in a Hilbert space and then establish strong convergence of the sequence generated by the proposed iterative scheme to a common element of the above two sets under suitable control conditions, which is a solution of a certain optimization problem. Applications of the main result are also given.

Abstract:
We introduce composite iterative schemes by the viscosity iteration method for finding a zero of an accretive operator in reflexive Banach spaces. Then, under certain differen control conditions, we establish strong convergence theorems on the composite iterative schemes. The main theorems improve and develop the recent corresponding results of Aoyama et al. (2007), Chen and Zhu (2006, 2008), Jung (2010), Kim and Xu (2005), Qin and Su (2007) and Xu (2006) as well as Benavides et al. (2003), Kamimura and Takahashi (2000), Maingé (2006), and Nakajo (2006).

Abstract:
Let be a reflexive Banach space with a uniformly Gateaux differentiable norm. Suppose that every weakly compact convex subset of has the fixed point property for nonexpansive mappings. Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of , a contractive mapping (or a weakly contractive mapping), and nonexpansive mapping with the fixed point set . Let be generated by a new composite iterative scheme: , , . It is proved that converges strongly to a point in , which is a solution of certain variational inequality provided that the sequence satisfies and , for some and the sequence is asymptotically regular.

Abstract:
In this paper we numerically study the behavior of the density power spectrum in turbulent thermally bistable flows. We analyze a set of five three-dimensional simulations where turbulence is randomly driven in Fourier space at a fixed wave-number and with different Mach numbers M (with respect to the warm medium) ranging from 0.2 to 4.5. The density power spectrum becomes shallower as M increases and the same is true for the column density power spectrum. This trend is interpreted as a consequence of the simultaneous turbulent compressions, thermal instability generated density fluctuations, and the weakening of thermal pressure force in diffuse gas. This behavior is consistent with the fact that observationally determined spectra exhibit different slopes in different regions. The values of the spectral indexes resulting from our simulations are consistent with observational values. We do also explore the behavior of the velocity power spectrum, which becomes steeper as M increases. The spectral index goes from a value much shallower than the Kolmogorov one for M=0.2 to a value steeper than the Kolmogorov one for M=4.5.

Abstract:
We performed a numerical experiment designed for core formation in a self-gravitating, magnetically supercritical, supersonically turbulent, isothermal cloud. A density probability distribution function (PDF) averaged over a converged turbulent state before turning self-gravity on is well-fitted with a lognormal distribution. However, after turning self-gravity on, the volume fractions of density PDFs at a high density tail, compared with the lognormal distribution, increase as time goes on. In order to see the effect of self-gravity on core formation rates, we compared the core formation rate per free-fall time (CFR$_{\rm ff}$) from the theory based on the lognormal distribution and the one from our numerical experiment. For our fiducial value of a critical density, 100, normalised with an initial value, the latter CFR$_{\rm ff}$ is about 30 times larger the former one. Therefore, self-gravity plays an important role in significantly increasing CFR$_{\rm ff}$. This result implies that core (star) formation rates or core (stellar) mass functions predicted from theories based on the lognormal density PDF need some modifications. Our result of the increased volume fraction of density PDFs after turning self-gravity on is consistent with power-law like tails commonly observed at higher ends of visual extinction PDFs of active star-forming clouds.

Abstract:
We numerically study the volume density probability distribution function (n-PDF) and the column density probability distribution function (Sigma-PDF) resulting from thermally bistable turbulent flows. We analyze three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in periodic boxes of 100pc by side, where turbulence is driven in the Fourier space at a wavenumber corresponding to 50pc. At low densities (n <= 0.6cm^-3) the n-PDF, is well described by a lognormal distribution for average local Mach number ranging from ~0.2 to ~5.5. As a consequence of the non linear development of thermal instability (TI), the logarithmic variance of the distribution for the diffuse gas increases with M faster than in the well known isothermal case. The average local Mach number for the dense gas (n >= 7.1cm^-3) goes from ~1.1 to ~16.9 and the shape of the high density zone of the n-PDF changes from a power-law at low Mach numbers to a lognormal at high M values. In the latter case the width of the distribution is smaller than in the isothermal case and grows slower with M. At high column densities the Sigma-PDF is well described by a lognormal for all the Mach numbers we consider and, due to the presence of TI, the width of the distribution is systematically larger than in the isothermal case but follows a qualitatively similar behavior as M increases. Although a relationship between the width of the distribution and M can be found for each one of the cases mentioned above, these relations are different form those of the isothermal case.

Abstract:
The Parker instability is considered to play important roles in the evolution of the interstellar medium. Most studies on the development of the instability so far have been based on an initial equilibrium system with a uniform magnetic field. However, the Galactic magnetic field possesses a random component in addition to the mean uniform component, with comparable strength of the two components. Parker and Jokipii have recently suggested that the random component can suppress the growth of small wavelength perturbations. Here, we extend their analysis by including gas pressure which was ignored in their work, and study the stabilizing effect of the random component in the interstellar gas with finite pressure. Following Parker and Jokipii, the magnetic field is modeled as a mean azimuthal component, $B(z)$, plus a random radial component, $\epsilon(z) B(z)$, where $\epsilon(z)$ is a random function of height from the equatorial plane. We show that for the observationally suggested values of $<\epsilon^2>^{1/2}$, the tension due to the random component becomes important, so that the growth of the instability is either significantly reduced or completely suppressed. When the instability still works, the radial wavenumber of the most unstable mode is found to be zero. That is, the instability is reduced to be effectively two-dimensional. We discuss briefly the implications of our finding.

Abstract:
To examine how non-uniform nature of the Galactic gravity might affect length and time scales of the Parker instability, we took three models of gravity, uniform, linear and realistic ones. To make comparisons of the three gravity models on a common basis, we first fixed the ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure at $\alpha$ = 0.25, that of cosmic-ray pressure at $\beta$ = 0.4, and the rms velocity of interstellar clouds at $a_s$ = 6.4 km s$^{-1}$, and then adjusted parameters of the gravity models in such a way that the resulting density scale heights for the three models may all have the same value of 160 pc. Performing linear stability analyses onto equilibrium states under the three models with the typical ISM conditions, we calculate the maximum growth rate and corresponding length scale for each of the gravity models. Under the uniform gravity the Parker instability has the growth time of 1.2$\times10^{8}$ years and the length scale of 1.6 kpc for symmetric mode. Under the realistic gravity it grows in 1.8$\times10^{7}$ years for both symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and develops density condensations at intervals of 400 pc for the symmetric mode and 200 pc for the antisymmetric one. A simple change of the gravity model has thus reduced the growth time by almost an order of magnitude and its length scale by factors of four to eight. These results suggest that an onset of the Parker instability in the ISM may not necessarily be confined to the regions of high $\alpha$ and $\beta$.