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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210394 matches for " Jonathan P. Gardner "
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An Extendable Galaxy Number Count Model
Jonathan P. Gardner
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/316141
Abstract: I review galaxy number count models and present ncmod, an extendable and general purpose model for comparing and interpreting the results of field galaxy survey data. I develop techniques and software for converting the results of a survey done in one filter into another filter, for direct comparison with other surveys. Comparison of the data from surveys which differ greatly in wavelength coverage or sensitivity is of necessity model-dependent, but comparison between similar surveys can be done in a relatively model-independent way. I extrapolate existing number counts into the ultraviolet and thermal infrared. The model is used to predict the results of future space missions, including STIS and NICMOS on HST, ISO, SIRTF and NGST.
Counts and Sizes of Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field - South: Implications for the Next Generation Space Telescope
Jonathan P. Gardner,Shobita Satyapal
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301368
Abstract: Science objectives for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) include a large component of galaxy surveys, both imaging and spectroscopy. The Hubble Deep Field datasets include the deepest observations ever made in the ultraviolet, optical and near infrared, reaching depths comparable to that expected for NGST spectroscopy. We present the source counts, galaxy sizes and isophotal filling factors of the HDF-South images. The observed integrated galaxy counts reach >500 galaxies per square arcminute at AB<30. We extend these counts to faint levels in the infrared using models. The trend previously seen that fainter galaxies are smaller, continues to AB=29 in the high resolution HDF-S STIS image, where galaxies have a typical half-light radius of 0.1 arcseconds. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the small measured sizes are not due to selection effects until >29mag. Using the HDF-S NICMOS image, we show that galaxies are smaller in the near infrared than they are in the optical. We analyze the isophotal filling factor of the HDF-S STIS image, and show that this image is mostly empty sky even at the limits of galaxy detection, a conclusion we expect to hold true for NGST spectroscopy. At the surface brightness limits expected for NGST imaging, however, about a quarter of the sky is occupied by the outer isophotes of AB<30 galaxies. We discuss the implications of these data on several design concepts of the NGST near-infrared spectrograph. We compare the effects of resolution and the confusion limit of various designs, as well as the multiplexing advantages of either multi-object or full-field spectroscopy. We argue that the optimal choice for NGST spectroscopy of high redshift galaxies is a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) with target selection by a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) device.
Ultraviolet Galaxy Counts from STIS Observations of the Hubble Deep Fields
Jonathan P. Gardner,Thomas M. Brown,Henry C. Ferguson
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: We present galaxy counts in the near-ultraviolet (NUV; 2365\AA) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1595\AA) obtained from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations of portions of the Hubble Deep Field North (HDFN), the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS), and a parallel field near the HDFN. All three fields have deep (AB$>$29) optical imaging, and we determine magnitudes by taking the ultraviolet flux detected within the limiting optical isophote. An analysis of the UV-optical colors of detected objects, combined with a visual inspection of the UV images, indicates that there are no detectable objects in the UV images that are not also detected in the optical. We determine our detection area and completeness as a function of magnitude with a simulated distribution of galaxies based on the HDFN Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) V+I image. The galaxy counts reach to $NUV_{AB}=29$ and $FUV_{AB}=30$, which is 1 magnitude fainter than the HDFN WFPC2/F300W counts, and 7 magnitudes fainter than balloon-based counts. We integrate our measurements to present the extragalactic background radiation coming from resolved objects. The NUV galaxy counts show a flattening or turnover beginning at about $NUV_{AB}=26.0$, which is not predicted either by no-evolution models based upon a local luminosity function with a steep faint end slope, nor by a semi-analytic model in which starbursts are caused by major mergers. The FUV counts also show a flat slope. We argue that the flat slopes could be caused by a short duty cycle for star formation, additional starbursts triggered by minor mergers, and an extended quiescent phase between starburst episodes.
Applying Fishers' Ecological Knowledge to Construct Past and Future Lobster Stocks in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile
Tyler D. Eddy,Jonathan P. A. Gardner,Alejandro Pérez-Matus
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013670
Abstract: Over-exploited fisheries are a common feature of the modern world and a range of solutions including area closures (marine reserves; MRs), effort reduction, gear changes, ecosystem-based management, incentives and co-management have been suggested as techniques to rebuild over-fished populations. Historic accounts of lobster (Jasus frontalis) on the Chilean Juan Fernández Archipelago indicate a high abundance at all depths (intertidal to approximately 165 m), but presently lobsters are found almost exclusively in deeper regions of their natural distribution. Fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK) tells a story of serial depletion in lobster abundance at fishing grounds located closest to the fishing port with an associated decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) throughout recent history. We have re-constructed baselines of lobster biomass throughout human history on the archipelago using historic data, the fishery catch record and FEK to permit examination of the potential effects of MRs, effort reduction and co-management (stewardship of catch) to restore stocks. We employed a bioeconomic model using FEK, fishery catch and effort data, underwater survey information, predicted population growth and response to MR protection (no-take) to explore different management strategies and their trade-offs to restore stocks and improve catches. Our findings indicate that increased stewardship of catch coupled with 30% area closure (MR) provides the best option to reconstruct historic baselines. Based on model predictions, continued exploitation under the current management scheme is highly influenced by annual fluctuations and unsustainable. We propose a community-based co-management program to implement a MR in order to rebuild the lobster population while also providing conservation protection for marine species endemic to the Archipelago.
Distant Storms as Drivers of Environmental Change at Pacific Atolls
Jonathan P. A. Gardner, David W. Garton, John D. Collen, Daniel Zwartz
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087971
Abstract: The central Pacific Ocean with its many low lying islands and atolls is under threat from sea level rise and increased storm activity. Here, we illustrate how increasing frequency and severity of large scale storm events associated with global climate change may be particularly profound at the local scale for human populations that rely on lagoon systems for provision of a variety of goods and services. In August 2011 a storm originating in the Southern Ocean caused a large amplitude ocean swell to move northward through the Pacific Ocean. Its arrival at Palmyra Atoll coincided with transient elevated sea surface height and triggered turnover of the lagoon water column. This storm-induced change to the lagoon reflects long distance connectivity with propagated wave energy from the Southern Ocean and illustrates the increasing threats generated by climate change that are faced by human populations on most low-lying Pacific islands and atolls.
Galaxy Morphology from NICMOS Parallel Imaging
Harry I. Teplitz,Jonathan P. Gardner,Eliot M. Malumuth,Sara R. Heap
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311665
Abstract: We present high resolution NICMOS images of random fields obtained in parallel to other HST observations. We present galaxy number counts reaching H=24. The H-band galaxy counts show good agreement with the deepest I- and K-band counts obtained from ground-based data. We present the distribution of galaxies with morphological type to H<23. We find relatively fewer irregular galaxies compared to an I-band sample from the Hubble Deep Field, which we attribute to their blue color, rather than to morphological K-corrections. We conclude that the irregulars are intrinsically faint blue galaxies at z<1.
Emission Line Galaxies in the STIS Parallel Survey II: Star Formation Density
Harry I. Teplitz,Nicholas R. Collins,Jonathan P. Gardner,Robert S. Hill,Jason Rhodes
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/374659
Abstract: We present the luminosity function of [OII]-emitting galaxies at a median redshift of z=0.9, as measured in the deep spectroscopic data in the STIS Parallel Survey (SPS). The luminosity function shows strong evolution from the local value, as expected. By using random lines of sight, the SPS measurement complements previous deep single field studies. We calculate the density of inferred star formation at this redshift by converting from [OII] to H-alpha line flux as a function of absolute magnitude and find rho_dot=0.043 +/- 0.014 Msun/yr/Mpc^3 at a median redshift z~0.9 within the range 0.46
Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies
Elysse N. Voyer,Jonathan P. Gardner,Harry I. Teplitz,Brian D. Siana,Duilia F. de Mello
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/80
Abstract: The far-ultraviolet (FUV) number counts of galaxies constrain the evolution of the star-formation rate density of the universe. We report the FUV number counts computed from FUV imaging of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and small areas within the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts sample a FUV AB magnitude range from 21-29 and cover a total area of 15.9 arcmin^2, ~4 times larger than the most recent HST FUV study. Our FUV counts intersect bright FUV GALEX counts at 22.5 mag and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytic models based on dark matter "merger trees" by Somerville et al. (2011). We show that the number counts are ~35% lower than in previous HST studies that use smaller areas. The differences between these studies are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more lines of sight and more area than previous HST FUV studies. The integrated light from field galaxies is found to contribute between 65.9 +/-8 - 82.6 +/-12 photons/s/cm^2/sr/angstrom to the FUV extragalactic background. These measurements set a lower limit for the total FUV background light.
Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies
Susan A. Kassin,Alyson Brooks,Fabio Governato,Benjamin J. Weiner,Jonathan P. Gardner
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/790/2/89
Abstract: Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z=1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma_g) and increase in ordered rotation (Vrot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma_g and Vrot with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations, and they both have similarly large scatter. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.
The rise and fall of the star formation histories of blue galaxies at redshifts 0.2
Camilla Pacifici,Susan A. Kassin,Benjamin Weiner,Stephane Charlot,Jonathan P. Gardner
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/762/1/L15
Abstract: Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitors, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use a sophisticated approach to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2 < z < 1.4 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). This consists in the Bayesian analysis of the observed galaxy spectral energy distributions with a comprehensive library of synthetic spectra assembled using realistic, hierarchical star formation and chemical enrichment histories from cosmological simulations. We constrain the SFH of each galaxy in our sample by comparing the observed fluxes in the B, R, I and Ks bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFHs on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs widely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions may not be appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.
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