Abstract:
Quantum states of light, such as squeezed states or entangled states, can be used to make measurements (metrology), produce images, and sense objects with a precision that far exceeds what is possible classically, and also exceeds what was once thought to be possible quantum mechanically. The primary idea is to exploit quantum effects to beat the shot-noise limit in metrology and the Rayleigh diffraction limit in imaging and sensing. Quantum optical metrology has received a boost in recent years with an influx of ideas from the rapidly evolving field of optical quantum information processing. Both areas of research exploit the creation and manipulation of quantum-entangled states of light. We will review some of the recent theoretical and experimental advances in this exciting new field of quantum optical metrology, focusing on examples that exploit a particular two-mode entangled photon state -- the High-N00N state.

Abstract:
I consider an exact model of atomic spontaneous dipole emission and classical dipole radiation in a finite photonic band-gap structure. The full 3D or 2D problem is reduced to a finite 1D model, and then this is solved for analytically using algebraic matrix transfer techniques. The results give insight to the electromagnetic emission process in periodic dielectrics, quantitative predictions for emission in 1D dielectric stacks, and qualitative formulas for the 2D and 3D problem.

Abstract:
We describe an assembly of N superconducting qubits contained in a single-mode cavity. In the dispersive regime, the correlation between the cavity field and each qubit results in an effective interaction between qubits that can be used to dynamically generate maximally entangled states. With only collective manipulations, we show how to create maximally entangled quantum states and how to use these states to reach the Heisenberg limit in the determination of the qubit bias control parameter (gate charge for charge qubits, external magnetic flux for rf-SQUIDs).

Abstract:
We consider a nonlinear sign gate implemented using a sequence of two beam splitters, and consider the use of further sequences of beam splitters to implement feed-forward so as to correct an error resulting from the first beam splitter. We obtain similar results to Scheel et al. [Scheel et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 034301 (2006)], in that we also find that our feed-forward procedure is only able to produce a very minor improvement in the success probability of the original gate.

Abstract:
We describe an assembly of N Cooper-pair boxes (CPB) contained in a single mode cavity. In the dispersive regime, the correlation between the cavity field and each Cooper-pair box results in an effective interaction between CPBs that can be used to dynamically generate maximally entangled states. With only collective manipulations, we show how to create maximally entangled quantum states and how to use these states to reach the Heisenberg limit in the determination of a spectroscopy frequency. This scheme can be applied to other types of superconducting qubits.

Abstract:
Recent work has raised the possibility that quantum information theory techniques can be used to synchronize atomic clocks nonlocally. One of the proposed algorithms for quantum clock synchronization (QCS) requires distribution of entangled pure singlets to the synchronizing parties. Such remote entanglement distribution normally creates a relative phase error in the distributed singlet state which then needs to be purified asynchronously. We present a fully relativistic analysis of the QCS protocol which shows that asynchronous entanglement purification is not possible, and, therefore, that the proposed QCS scheme remains incomplete. We discuss possible directions of research in quantum information theory which may lead to a complete, working QCS protocol.

Abstract:
We show how an idealised measurement procedure can condense photons from two modes into one, and how, by feeding forward the results of the measurement, it is possible to generate efficiently superpositions of components for which only one mode is populated, commonly called ``N00N states''. For the basic procedure, sources of number states leak onto a beam splitter, and the output ports are monitored by photodetectors. We find that detecting a fixed fraction of the input at one output port suffices to direct the remainder to the same port with high probability, however large the initial state. When instead photons are detected at both ports, Schr\"{o}dinger cat states are produced. We describe a circuit for making the components of such a state orthogonal, and another for subsequent conversion to a N00N state. Our approach scales exponentially better than existing proposals. Important applications include quantum imaging and metrology.

Abstract:
The discovery of an algorithm for factoring which runs in polynomial time on a quantum computer has given rise to a concerted effort to understand the principles, advantages, and limitations of quantum computing. At the same time, many different quantum systems are being explored for their suitability to serve as a physical substrate for the quantum computer of the future. I discuss some of the theoretical foundations of quantum computer science, including algorithms and error correction, and present a few physical systems that have shown promise as a quantum computing platform. Finally, we discuss a spin-off of the quantum computing revolution: quantum technologies.

Abstract:
When vortices are displaced in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), the Magnus force gives the system a momentum transverse in the direction to the displacement. We show that Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in long channels with vortices exhibit a quantization of the current response with respect to the spatial vortex distribution. The quantization originates from the well-known topological property of the phase around a vortex --- it is an integer multiple of $ 2 \pi $. In a similar way to the integer quantum Hall effect, the current along the channel is related to this topological phase, and can be extracted from two experimentally measurable quantities: the total momentum of the BEC and the spatial distribution. The quantization is in units of $ m/2h $, where $ m $ is the mass of the atoms and $ h $ is Planck's constant. We derive an exact vortex momentum-displacement relation for BECs in long channels under general circumstances. Our results presents the possibility that the configuration described here can be used as a novel way of measuring the mass of the atoms in the BEC using a topological invariant of the system. If an accurate determination of the plateaus are experimentally possible, this gives the possibility of a topological quantum mass standard and precise determination of the fine structure constant.

Abstract:
Due to the absence of an external, classical time variable, the probabilistic predictions of covariant quantum theory are ambiguous when multiple measurements are considered. Here, we introduce an information theoretic framework to the covariant formalism, and use it to interpret the measurement process. We find that the time ordering of measurements emerges as an entropy relationship in the state of the observers, giving unique probabilities for multiple measurements. This approach suggests a new, fully self-contained probability interpretation for generally covariant quantum physics, which makes use of a quantum mechanical description of the observer, in contrast to standard quantum mechanics which assumes an external, classical observer.