Over 50
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) to be
associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D); however the causal
gene in most cases is not known. In this study we sought to identify which may
be the most likely causal genes at five T2D GWAS loci by measuring their
expression in control and T2D islets, as well as observing their regulation by
glucose. We measured the expression of ten genes at five loci (CDKN2A/2B, CDC123/CAMK-1D, HHEX/IDE, TSPAN8/LGR5, and DGKB/TMEM 195), in control and human
pancreatic islets by real-time PCR. We then measured the expression of these
genes in the rodent pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 exposed to 5.6 mmol/l, 11 mmol/l
and 28 mmol/l glucose for 48 hours. We found differential expression of the
longest isoform of CDKN2B specifically between control and T2D
human islets, whereas the shortest isoform of this gene had no expression in
islets. Tmem195 was the only gene to
show differential expression in response to increasing glycemia in INS-1 cells
under the conditions described. Our study is an example of how the differential
expression of genes in loci spanning more than one gene can aid identification
of the more likely causal gene.

Let 0＜γ＜π be a fixed pythagorean angle. We study the abelian group H_{r} of primitive integral triangles (a,b,c) for which the angle opposite side c is γ. Addition in H_{r } is defined by adding the anglesβopposite side b and modding out by π-γ. The only H_{r} for which the structure is known is H_{π}_{/}_{2}, which is free abelian. We prove that for generalγ, H_{r} has an element of order two iff 2(1-

Abstract:
Our ability to form abstract representations of objects in semantic memory is crucial to language and thought. The utility of this information relies both on the representations of sensory-motor feature knowledge stored in long-term memory and the executive processes required to retrieve, manipulate, and evaluate this semantic knowledge in a task-relevant manner. These complementary components of semantic memory can be differentially impacted by aging. We investigated semantic processing in normal aging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young and older adults were asked to judge whether two printed object names match on a particular feature (for example, whether a tomato and strawberry have the same color). The task thus required both retrieval of relevant visual feature knowledge of object concepts and evaluating this information. Objects were drawn from either natural kinds or manufactured objects, and were queried on either color or shape in a factorial design. Behaviorally, all subjects performed well, but older adults could be divided into those whose performance matched that of young adults (better performers) and those whose performance was worse (poorer performers). All subjects activated several cortical regions while performing this task, including bilateral inferior and lateral temporal cortex and left frontal and prefrontal cortex. Better performing older adults showed increased overall activity in bilateral premotor cortex and left lateral occipital cortex compared to young adults, and increased activity in these brain regions relative to poorer performing older adults who also showed gray matter atrophy in premotor cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of domain-general executive processing brain regions to semantic memory, and illustrate differences in how these regions are recruited in healthy older adults.

Abstract:
We study a semiconductor based quantum metamaterial which has the optical characteristics of a metal in two directions, but behaves like a collection of artificial atoms, whose properties can be designed in using quantum theory, in the third. We find that it supports a new type of guided collective plasma resonance (CPR) mode which exhibits efficient optical coupling and long propagation distances. Furthermore, the coupling of the CPR mode with the artificial atom transition leads to a case of Ultra Strong Coupling, demonstrated by a large vacuum Rabi splitting of 65 meV, a sizable fraction (21 percent), of the bare intersubband energy.

Abstract:
We introduce the M\"obius polynomial $ M_n(x) = \sum_{d|n} \mu\left( \frac nd \right) x^d $, which gives the number of aperiodic bracelets of length $n$ with $x$ possible types of gems, and therefore satisfies $M_n(x) \equiv 0$ (mod $n$) for all $x \in \mathbb Z$. We derive some key properties, analyze graphs in the complex plane, and then apply M\"obius polynomials combinatorially to juggling patterns, irreducible polynomials over finite fields, and Euler's totient theorem.

Abstract:
We analyze the homothety types of associative bilinear forms that can occur on a Hopf algebra or on a local Frobenius \(k\)-algebra \(R\) with residue field \(k\). If \(R\) is symmetric, then there exists a unique form on \(R\) up to homothety iff \(R\) is commutative. If \(R\) is Frobenius, then we introduce a norm based on the Nakayama automorphism of \(R\). We show that if two forms on \(R\) are homothetic, then the norm of the unit separating them is central, and we conjecture the converse. We show that if the dimension of \(R\) is even, then the determinant of a form on \(R\), taken in \(\dot k/\dot k^2\), is an invariant for \(R\). \textit{Key words}: bilinear form, Frobenius algebra, homothety, Hopf algebra, isometry, local algebra, Nakayama automorphism, Ore extension, symmetric algebra

Abstract:
We show that the Nakayama automorphism of a Frobenius algebra $R$ over a field $k$ is independent of the field (Theorem 4). Consequently, the $k$-dual functor on left $R$-modules and the bimodule isomorphism type of the $k$-dual of $R$, and hence the question of whether $R$ is a symmetric $k$-algebra, are independent of $k$. We give a purely ring-theoretic condition that is necessary and sufficient for a finite-dimensional algebra over an infinite field to be a symmetric algebra (Theorem 7). Key words: Nakayama automorphism, Frobenius algebra, Frobenius ring, symmetric algebra, dual module, dual functor, bimodule, Brauer Equivalence.

Abstract:
Purpose. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma represents an unusual soft-tissue sarcoma that historically is reported to carry an exceptionally poor prognosis.The objectives of this study were to use a prospectively gathered sarcoma database to test the prevailing clinical bias and more accurately describe the natural history, characterize the prognostic features, estimate survival and evaluate treatment strategies for this unusual sarcoma.

Abstract:
Altered expression of oxidative metabolism genes has been described in the skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells contain low levels of antioxidant enzymes and are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the effect of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress on a panel of oxidative metabolism genes in a rodent beta cell line. We exposed INS-1 rodent beta cells to low (5.6 mmol/L), ambient (11 mmol/L), and high (28 mmol/L) glucose conditions for 48 hours. Increases in oxidative stress were measured using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123. We then measured the expression levels of a panel of 90 oxidative metabolism genes by real-time PCR. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evident in INS-1 cells after 48 hours (<0.05). TLDA analysis revealed a significant (<0.05) upregulation of 16 of the 90 genes under hyperglycemic conditions, although these expression differences did not reflect differences in ROS. We conclude that although altered glycemia may influence the expression of some oxidative metabolism genes, this effect is probably not mediated by increased ROS production. The alterations to the expression of oxidative metabolism genes previously observed in human diabetic skeletal muscle do not appear to be mirrored in rodent pancreatic beta cells.

Abstract:
The study took place in a 500 bed, urban, tertiary care hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This was a quasi-experimental, which examined the impact of a FTA on a pre-intervention control group (January 2005) (n = 4,779) versus a post-intervention study group (January 2006) (n = 5,706).Mean WTs of Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) 4 patients decreased by 22 min (95% CI 21 min to 24 min, P < 0.001). Similarly, mean WTs of CTAS 5 patients decreased by 28 min (95% CI 19 min to 37 min, P < 0.001) post FTA. The mean WTs of urgent patients (CTAS 2/3) were also significantly reduced after the FTA was opened (P < 0.001). The LWBS rate was reduced from 4.7% to 0.7% (95% CI 3.37 to 4.64; P < 0.001). Opening a FTA had no significant impact on mortality rates (P = 0.88).The FTA improved ED effectiveness (WTs and LOS) and quality measures (LWBS rates) whereas mortality rate remained unchanged.Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is becoming a ubiquitous manifestation representing an imbalance between the supply of medical resources and the demand by patients for quick and efficient service. It is a systemic and serious public health issue that affects industrialized countries all over the world [1-7]. Even though ED overcrowding has a multi-factorial origin that encompasses both internal and external factors, the use of EDs by non-urgent cases is also a contributing factor [1]. Therefore reducing the length of stay (LOS) and waiting times (WT) of non-urgent patients should contribute to a reduction in overcrowding.A proportion of patient morbidity and mortality can be attributed to delays in early diagnosis and treatment, especially with time-sensitive diagnoses such as myocardial infarction, pneumonia, sepsis, and stroke [8]. Thus even mild conditions have the potential to become more serious if patients do not receive early medical care or they leave without being seen (LWBS) [9]. Finally, overcrowding is a cause of dissatisfaction among patients who wait the long