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The rise in metabolic syndrome (MetS) is accompanied by a decrease in milk and dairy consumption and an increase in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, with SSB possibly displacing dairy products in the diet. Our main objective was to determine whether young individuals not meeting the dairy recommendations of 3 servings per day were at greater risk for MetS. In a cross-sectional design, a food frequency questionnaire was answered by Mexican college applicants (n = 339). Medical examination at a primary health care center and evaluation for presence of MetS risk factors was completed as part of an ongoing collaborative project. Relative risk analyses were used to assess the impact of meeting or not the dairy recommendations for the presence of MetS. The MetS prevalence was 10. Three-fourths (76%) of participants were not meeting the daily recommendations. Individuals who failed to meet dairy recommendations were at 2.9 times greater risk for MetS when controlling for age, sex, family history of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and physical activity. We did not found that SSB were displacing dairy products in the diet. Still, our data support the importance of meeting daily dairy recommendations for the prevention of MetS in young adults.
Individual variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity and BMI in diverse populations, but there are no reports in young Mexicans. We explored the association of a common FTO single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs805704) with obesity-related phenotypes in Mexican young adults. The FTO-SNP was genotyped using the fluorescent polarization method in college-age, apparently healthy subjects from the “UP AMIGOS” cohort (n = 251, 18 - 25 yrs). Homozygotes for the A allele (15%, n = 38) were heavier (1.6 kg/m2 and6.2 kg) and had a larger waist circumference (WC,4.8 cm) than G allele carriers. The FTO genotype was associated with BMI, weight and WC independently of age and sex and explained 2.7 to 3.1% of the variance in obesity-related phenotypes. The FTO genotype was also associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.0283). No other associations were found in the additive model. Despite our small sample size, we found that the FTO-rs805704 genotype influences obesity-related phenotypes young Mexicans. Previously observed FTO associations with fasting glucose were replicated. Previously reported associations with other metabolic traits likely represent the long-term consequences of obesity.