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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8183 matches for " Jon Miller "
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Suzaku Observations of the Galactic Center Microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942
Mark Reynolds,Jon Miller
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/716/2/1431
Abstract: We present two Suzaku observations of the Galactic center microquasar 1E 1740.7-2942 separated by approximately 700 days. The source was observed on both occasions after a transition to the spectrally hard state. Significant emission from 1E 1740.7-2942 is detected out to an energy of 300 keV, with no spectral break or turnover evident in the data. We tentatively measure a lower limit to the cut-off energy of ~ 380 keV. The spectra are found to be consistent with a Comptonized corona on both occasions, where the high energy emission is consistent with a hard power-law (\Gamma ~ 1.8) with a significant contribution from an accretion disc with a temperature of ~ 0.4 keV at soft X-ray energies. The measured value for the inner radius of the accretion disc is found to be inconsistent with the picture whereby the disc is truncated at large radii in the low-hard state and instead favours a radius close to the ISCO (R_in ~ 10 - 20 R_g).
Evidence of a Warm Absorber that Varies with QPO Phase in the AGN RE J1034+396
Dipankar Maitra,Jon Miller
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: A recent observation of the nearby (z=0.042) narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 on 2007 May 31 showed strong quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray flux. We present phase-resolved spectroscopy of this observation, using data obtained by the EPIC PN detector onboard XMM. The "low" phase spectrum, associated with the troughs in the light curve, shows (at >4 sigma confidence level) an absorption edge at 0.86+/-0.05 keV with an absorption depth of 0.3+/-0.1. Ionized oxygen edges are hallmarks of X-ray warm absorbers in Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGN); the observed edge is consistent with H-like O VIII and implies a column density of N_{OVIII}~3x10^{18} cm^{-2}. The edge is not seen in the "high" phase spectrum associated with the crests in the light curve, suggesting the presence of a warm absorber in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole which periodically obscures the continuum emission. If the QPO arises due to Keplerian orbital motion around the central black hole, the periodic appearance of the O VIII edge would imply a radius of ~9.4(M/[4x10^6 Msun])^{-2/3}(P/[1 hr])^{2/3} r_g for the size of the warm absorber.
An Anomalous Quiescent Stellar Mass Black Hole
Mark Reynolds,Jon Miller
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/734/1/L17
Abstract: We present the results of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the quiescent stellar mass black hole GS 1354-64. A total of 266 net counts are detected at the position of this system. The resulting spectrum is found to be consistent with the spectra of previously observed quiescent black holes, i.e., a power-law with a photon index of \Gamma ~ 2. The inferred luminosity in the 0.5 -- 10 keV band is found to lie in the range 0.5 - 6.5 x 10^{34} erg/s, where the uncertainty in the distance is the dominant source of this large luminosity range. Nonetheless, this luminosity is over an order of magnitude greater than that expected from the known distribution of quiescent stellar mass black hole luminosities and makes GS 1354-64 the only known stellar mass black hole to disagree with this relation. This observation suggests the possibility of significant accretion persisting in the quiescent state.
A Swift survey of accretion onto stellar-mass black holes
Mark Reynolds,Jon Miller
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/16
Abstract: We present a systemic analysis of all of the stellar mass black hole binaries (confirmed & candidate) observed by the Swift observatory up to June 2010. The broad Swift bandpass enables a trace of disk evolution over an unprecedented range in flux and temperature. The final data sample consists of 476 X-ray spectra containing greater than 100 counts, in the 0.6 -- 10 keV band. This is the largest sample of high quality CCD spectra of accreting black holes published to date. In addition, strictly simultaneous data at optical/UV wavelengths are available for 255 (54%) of these observations. The data are modelled with a combination of an accretion disk and a hard spectral component. For the hard component we consider both a simple power-law and a thermal Comptonization model. An accretion disk is detected at greater than the 5sigma confidence level in 61% of the observations. Lightcurves and color-color diagrams are constructed for each system. Hardness luminosity and disk fraction luminosity diagrams are constructed and are observed to be consistent with those typically observed by RXTE, noting the sensitivity below 2 keV provided by Swift. The observed spectra have an average luminosity of ~ 1% Eddington, though we are sensitive to accretion disks down to a luminosity of 10^{-3} L_Edd. Thus this is also the largest sample of such cool accretion disks studied to date. (abridged)
The Masses and Spins of Neutron Stars and Stellar-Mass Black Holes
M. Coleman Miller,Jon M. Miller
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2014.09.003
Abstract: Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects.
The new X-ray transient SAX J1711.6-3808: decoupling between its 3-20 keV luminosity and its state transitions
Rudy Wijnands,Jon M. Miller
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/324329
Abstract: We present a study of the correlated spectral and timing behavior of the new X-ray transient SAX J1711.6-3808 during its 2001 outburst using data obtained with the RXTE. We also investigate the correlations between those source properties and the 3-20 keV X-ray luminosity. The behavior of the source during the observations can be divided into two distinct state types. During the hard state, the energy spectra are relatively hard and can be described by only a power-law component, and the characteristic frequencies (i.e., the frequency of the 1-7 Hz QPOs observed for the first time in this source) in the power spectra are low. However, during the ``soft'' state, the spectra are considerably softer (in addition to the power-law component, a soft component is necessary to fit the spectra) and the frequencies are the highest observed. Remarkably, this distinction into two separate states cannot be extrapolated to also include the 3-20 keV X-ray luminosity. Except for one observation, this luminosity steadily decreased but the hard state was observed both at the highest and lowest observed luminosities. In contrast, the soft state occurred only at intermediate luminosities. This clearly demonstrates that the state behavior of SAX J1711.6-3808 is decoupled from its X-ray luminosity and that if the X-ray luminosity traces the accretion rate in SAX J1711.6-3808, then the state transitions are not good accretion rate indicators, or vice versa. The data of SAX J1711.6-3808 does not allow us to conclusively determine its exact nature. The source resembles both neutron star and black hole systems when they have low luminosities. We discuss our results with respect to the correlated timing and spectral behavior observed in other LMXBs and the implications of our results on the modeling of the outburst light curves of X-ray transients.
Observable Consequences of Merger-Driven Gaps and Holes in Black Hole Accretion Disks
Kayhan Gultekin,Jon M. Miller
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/90
Abstract: We calculate the observable signature of a black hole accretion disk with a gap or hole created by a secondary black hole embedded in the disk. We find that for an interesting range of parameters of black hole masses (~10^6 to 10^9 solar masses), orbital separation (~1 AU to ~0.1 pc), and gap width (10 to 190 disk scale heights), the missing thermal emission from a gap manifests itself in an observable decrement in the spectral energy distribution. We present observational diagnostics in terms of power-law forms that can be fit to line-free regions in AGN spectra or in fluxes from sequences of broad filters. Most interestingly, the change in slope in the broken power-law is almost entirely dependent on the width of gap in the accretion disk, which in turn is uniquely determined by mass ratio of the black holes, such that it scales roughly as q^(5/12). Thus one can use spectral observations of the continuum of bright active galactic nuclei to infer not only the presence of a closely separated black hole binary but also the mass ratio. When the black hole merger opens an entire hole (or cavity) in the inner disk, the broad band SED of the AGN or quasar may serve as a diagnostic. Such sources should be especially luminous in optical bands but intrinsically faint in X-rays (i.e., not merely obscured). We briefly note that viable candidates may have already been identified, though extant detailed modeling of those with high quality data have not yet revealed an inner cavity.
Clinical and Economic Burden of Revision Knee Arthroplasty
Mohit Bhandari, Jon Smith, Larry E. Miller, and Jon E. Block
Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMAMD.S10859
Abstract: Surgery is indicated for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) when conservative measures are unsuccessful. High tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are surgical options intended to relieve knee OA pain and dysfunction. The choice of surgical intervention is dependent on several factors such as disease location, patient age, comorbidities, and activity levels. Regardless of surgical treatment, complications such as infection, loosening or lysis, periprosthetic fracture, and postoperative pain are known risks and are indications for revision surgery. The clinical and economic implications for revision surgery are underappreciated. Over 55,000 revision surgeries were performed in 2010 in the US, with 48% of these revisions in patients under 65 years. Total costs associated with each revision TKA surgery have been estimated to be in excess of $49,000. The current annual economic burden of revision knee OA surgery is $2.7 billion for hospital charges alone. By 2030, assuming a 5-fold increase in the number of revision procedures, this economic burden will exceed $13 billion annually. It is appealing to envision a therapy that could delay or obviate the need for arthroplasty. From an actuarial standpoint, this would have the theoretical downstream effect of substantially reducing the number of revision procedures. Although no known therapies currently meet these criteria, such a breakthrough would have a tremendous impact in lessening the clinical and economic burden of knee OA revision surgery.
Clinical and Economic Burden of Revision Knee Arthroplasty
Mohit Bhandari,Jon Smith,Larry E. Miller,Jon E. Block
Clinical Medicine Insights: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2012,
Interspinous Spacer Implant in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Preliminary Results of a Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial
Larry E. Miller,Jon E. Block
Pain Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/823509
Abstract: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare clinical outcomes in patients treated with an investigational interspinous spacer (Superion) versus those treated with an FDA-approved spacer (X-STOP). One hundred sixty-six patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) unresponsive to conservative care were treated randomly with the Superion or X-STOP interspinous spacer. Study subjects were followed through 6 months posttreatment. Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) symptom severity scores improved 30% with Superion and 25% with X-STOP (both ). Similar changes were noted in ZCQ physical function with improvements of 32% with Superion and 27% with X-STOP (both ). Mean ZCQ patient satisfaction score ranged from 1.7 to 2.0 in both groups at all follow-up visits. The proportion of subjects that achieved at least two of three ZCQ clinical success criteria at 6 months was 75% with Superion and 67% with X-STOP. Axial pain decreased from ?mm at pretreatment to ?mm at 6 months in the Superion group ( ) and from ?mm to ?mm with X-STOP ( ). Extremity pain decreased from ?mm at pretreatment to ?mm at 6 months in the Superion group ( ) and from ?mm to ?mm with X-STOP ( ). Back function improved from % to % with Superion ( ) and from % to % with X-STOP ( ). Preliminary results suggest that the Superion interspinous spacer and the X-STOP each effectively alleviate pain and improve back function in patients with moderate LSS who are unresponsive to conservative care. 1. Introduction Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is defined as a narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal and/or the intervertebral foramina due to disc degeneration, bulging of the annulus, facet joint hypertrophy, and/or thickening of the ligamentum flavum [1–3]. This progressive narrowing causes compression of the neurovascular structures in the lumbar spine [4], which manifests as intermittent neurologic symptoms (typically low back and leg pain) with standing, ambulating, and trunk extension. The annual incidence of LSS is 5 per 100,000 people [5], and, in adults over the age of 65 years, LSS is the most common diagnosis in those who undergo spine surgery [6]. Nonsurgical management options such as activity modification, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, and epidural steroid injections represent the standard of care for initial treatment of mild claudication symptoms. The long-term effectiveness of these nonsurgical treatments is limited, however, since none hinders the progression of the disease [7–9]. This is supported by the fact that only 42% of patients treated with
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