Abstract:
We show that Landau level broadening in alloys occurs naturally as a consequence of random variations in the local quasiparticle density, without the need to consider a relaxation time. This approach predicts Lorentzian-broadened Landau levels similar to those derived by Dingle using the relaxation-time approximation. However, rather than being determined by a finite relaxation time $\tau$, the Landau-level widths instead depend directly on the rate at which the de Haas-van Alphen frequency changes with alloy composition. The results are in good agreement with recent data from three very different alloy systems.

Abstract:
We present a review of quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductors. These systems exhibit many interesting phenomena, including reduced dimensionality, strong electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions and the proximity of antiferromagnetism, insulator states and superconductivity. Moreover, it has been possible to measure the electronic bands of many of the organics in great detail, in contrast to the situation in other well-known systems in which similar phenomena occur. We describe the crystal structure and normal-state properties of the organics, before presenting the experimental evidence for and against exotic superconductivity mediated by antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Finally, three instances of field-induced unconventional superconductivity will be described.

Abstract:
Based on recent magnetic-quantum-oscillation, ARPES, neutron-scattering and other data, we propose that superconductivity in the cuprates occurs via a convenient matching of the spatial distribution of incommensurate spin fluctuations to the amplitude and phase of the $d_{x^2-y^2}$ Cooper-pair wavefunction; this establishes a robust causal relationship between the lengthscale of the fluctuations and the superconducting coherence length. It is suggested that the spin fluctuations are driven by the Fermi surface, which is prone to nesting; they couple to the itinerant holes via the on-site Coulomb correlation energy, which inhibits double occupancy of spins or holes. The maximum energy of the fluctuations gives an appropriate energy scale for the superconducting $T_{\rm c}$. Based on this model, one can specify the design of solids that will exhibit ``high $T_{\rm c}$'' superconductivity.

Abstract:
We consider the effect of a short antiferromagnetic correlation length $\xi$ on the electronic bandstructure of the underdoped cuprates. Starting with a Fermi-surface topology similar to that detected in magnetic quantum-oscillation experiments, we show that a reduced $\xi$ gives an assymmetric broadening of the quasiparticle dispersion, resulting in simulated ARPES data very similar to those observed in experiment. Predicted features include the presence of `Fermi arcs' close to $a{\bf k}=(\pi/2,\pi/2)$, without the need to invoke a d-wave pseudogap order parameter. The statistical variation in the ${\bf k}$-space areas of the reconstructed Fermi surface pockets causes the quantum oscillations to be strongly damped, even in very strong magnetic fields, in agreement with experiment.

Abstract:
The quasiparticle scattering rates in high-quality crystals of the quasi-two-dimensional superconductor $\kappa$-(BEDT-TTF)$_2$Cu(NCS)$_2$ ~are studied using the Shubnikov-de Haas effect and MHz penetration-depth experiments. There is strong evidence that the broadening of the Landau-levels is primarily caused by spatial inhomogeneities, indicating a quasiparticle lifetime for the Landau states $\gg 3$ ps. In contrast to the predictions of Fermi-liquid theory, the scattering time derived from the intralayer conductivity is found to be much shorter ($0.14-0.56$ ps).

Abstract:
We present thermodynamic studies of a new spin-1/2 antiferromagnet containing undistorted kagome lattices---barlowite Cu$_{4}$(OH)$_{6}$FBr. Magnetic susceptibility gives $\theta_{CW}$ = $-$136 K, while long-range order does not happen until $T_{N}$ = 15 K with a weak ferromagnetic moment $\mu$ $<$ 0.1$\mu_{B}$/Cu. A 60 T magnetic field induces a moment less than 0.5$\mu_{B}$/Cu at $T$ = 0.6 K. Specific-heat measurements have observed multiple phase transitions at $T \ll$ $\mid$$\theta_{CW}$$\mid$. The magnetic entropy of these transitions is merely 18% of $k_{B}$ln2 per Cu spin. These observations suggest that nontrivial spin textures are realized in barlowite with magnetic frustration. Comparing with the leading spin-liquid candidate herbertsmithite, the superior interkagome environment of barlowite sheds light on new spin-liquid compounds with minimum disorder. The robust perfect geometry of the kagome lattice makes charge doping promising.

Abstract:
There is a fundamental difference between the classical expression for the retarded electromagnetic potential and the corresponding retarded solution of the wave equation that governs the electromagnetic field. While the boundary contribution to the retarded solution for the {\em potential} can always be rendered equal to zero by means of a gauge transformation that preserves the Lorenz condition, the boundary contribution to the retarded solution of the wave equation governing the {\em field} may be neglected only if it diminishes with distance faster than the contribution of the source density in the far zone. In the case of a source whose distribution pattern both rotates and travels faster than light {\em in vacuo}, as realized in recent experiments, the boundary term in the retarded solution governing the field is by a factor of the order of $R^{1/2}$ {\em larger} than the source term of this solution in the limit that the distance $R$ of the boundary from the source tends to infinity. This result is consistent with the prediction of the retarded potential that part of the radiation field generated by a rotating superluminal source decays as $R^{-1/2}$, instead of $R^{-1}$, a prediction that is confirmed experimentally. More importantly, it pinpoints the reason why an argument based on a solution of the wave equation governing the field in which the boundary term is neglected (such as appears in the published literature) misses the nonspherical decay of the field.

Abstract:
The fact that the formula used by Hannay in his Comment is "from a standard text on electrodynamics" neither warrants that it is universally applicable, nor that it is unequivocally correct. We have explicitly shown [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 543 (2008)] that,since it does not include the boundary contribution toward the value of the field, the formula in question is not applicable when the source is extended and has a distribution pattern that rotates faster than light in vacuo. The neglected boundary term in the retarded solution to the wave equation governing the electromagnetic field forms the basis of diffraction theory. If this term were identically zero, for the reasons given by Hannay, the iffraction of electromagnetic waves through apertures on a surface enclosing a source would have been impossible. If this term were identically zero, for the reasons given by Hannay, the diffraction of electromagnetic waves through apertures on a surface enclosing a source would have been impossible.

Abstract:
There is a fundamental difference between the classical expression for the retarded electromagnetic potential and the corresponding retarded solution of the wave equation that governs the electromagnetic field. While the boundary contribution to the retarded solution for the potential can always be rendered equal to zero by means of a gauge transformation that preserves the Lorenz condition, the boundary contribution to the retarded solution of the wave equation governing the field may be neglected only if it diminishes with distance faster than the contribution of the source density in the far zone. In the case of a source whose distribution pattern rotates superluminally (i.e., faster than the speed of light in vacuo), the boundary term in the retarded solution governing the field is by a factor of the order of R^(1/2) larger than the source term of this solution in the limit where the distance R of the boundary from the source tends to infinity. This result is consistent with the prediction of the retarded potential that the radiation field generated by a rotating superluminal source decays as 1/R^(1/2), instead of 1/R. It also explains why an argument based on the solution of the wave equation governing the field in which the boundary term is neglected, such as Hannay presents in his Comment, misses the nonspherical decay of the field.

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to study the magnetic properties of arrays of Ni-Fe nanowires electrodeposited in different template materials such as porous silicon, polycarbonate and alumina. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of template material, applied magnetic field (parallel and perpendicular) during deposition, wire length, as well as magnetic field orientation during measurement. The results show that application of magnetic field during deposition strongly influences the c-axis preferred orientation growth of Ni-Fe nanowires. The samples with magnetic field perpendicular to template plane during deposition exhibits strong perpendicular anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness ratio, particularly in Ni-Fe nanowires deposited in polycarbonate templates. In case of polycarbonate template, as magnetic field during deposition increases, both coercivity and squareness ratio also increase. The wire length dependence was also measured for polycarbonate templates. As wire length increases, coercivity and squareness ratio decrease, but saturation field increases. Such magnetic behavior (dependence on template material, magnetic field, wire length) can be qualitatively explained by preferential growth phenomena, dipolar interactio