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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 426735 matches for " John M. Brewer "
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CHIRON TOOLS: Integrated Target Submission, Scheduling and Observing Systems for a High Resolution Fiber Fed Spectrograph
John M. Brewer,Matthew Giguere,Debra A. Fischer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1086/674723
Abstract: The CHIRON spectrometer is a new high-resolution, fiber-fed instrument on the 1.5 meter telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-America Observatory (CTIO). To optimize use of the instrument and limited human resources, we have designed an integrated set of web applications allowing target submission, observing script planning, nightly script execution and logging, and access to reduced data by multiple users. The unified and easy to use interface has dramatically reduced the time needed to submit and schedule observations and improved the efficiency and accuracy of nightly operations. We present our experience to help astronomers and project managers who need to plan for the scope of effort required to commission a queue-scheduled facility instrument.
A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute
Devon D. Brewer, John J. Potterat, Stephen Q. Muth, John M. Roberts
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000060
Abstract: Background Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.
Ruprecht 147: The oldest nearby open cluster as a new benchmark for stellar astrophysics
Jason L. Curtis,Angie Wolfgang,Jason T. Wright,John M. Brewer,John A. Johnson
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/145/5/134
Abstract: Ruprecht 147 is a hitherto unappreciated open cluster that holds great promise as a standard in fundamental stellar astrophysics. We have conducted a radial velocity survey of astrometric candidates with Lick, Palomar, and MMT observatories and have identified over 100 members, including 5 blue stragglers, 11 red giants, and 5 double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s). We estimate the cluster metallicity from spectroscopic analysis, using Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME), and find it to be [M/H] = +0.07 \pm 0.03. We have obtained deep CFHT/MegaCam g'r'i' photometry and fit Padova isochrones to the (g' - i') and 2MASS (J - K) CMDs using the \tau^2 maximum-likelihood procedure of Naylor (2009), and an alternative method using 2D cross-correlations developed in this work. We find best fits for isochrones at age t = 2.5 \pm 0.25 Gyr, m - M = 7.35 \pm 0.1, and A_V = 0.25 \pm 0.05, with additional uncertainty from the unresolved binary population and possibility of differential extinction across this large cluster. The inferred age is heavily dependent by our choice of stellar evolution model: fitting Dartmouth and PARSEC models yield age parameters of 3 Gyr and 3.25 Gyr respectively. At approximately 300 pc and 3 Gyr, Ruprecht 147 is by far the oldest nearby star cluster.
Accurate Gravities of F, G, and K stars from High Resolution Spectra Without External Constraints
John M. Brewer,Debra A. Fischer,Sarbani Basu,Jeff A. Valenti,Nikolai Piskunov
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/126
Abstract: We demonstrate a new procedure to derive accurate and precise surface gravities from high resolution spectra without the use of external constraints. Our analysis utilizes Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) with robust spectral line constraints and uses an iterative process to mitigate degeneracies in the fitting process. We adopt an updated radiative transfer code, a new treatment for neutral perturber broadening, a line list with multiple gravity constraints and separate fitting for global stellar properties and abundance determinations. To investigate the sources of temperature dependent trends in determining log g noted in previous studies, we obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 42 Kepler asteroseismic stars. In comparison to asteroseismically determined log g our spectroscopic analysis has a constant offset of 0.01 dex with a root mean square (RMS) scatter of 0.05 dex. We also analyzed 30 spectra which had published surface gravities determined using the $a/R_*$ technique from planetary transits and found a constant offset of 0.06 dex and RMS scatter of 0.07 dex. The two samples covered effective temperatures between 5000K and 6700K with log g between 3.7 and 4.6.
Prospecting in late-type dwarfs: a calibration of infrared and visible spectroscopic metallicities of late-K and M dwarfs spanning 1.5 dex
Andrew W. Mann,John M. Brewer,Eric Gaidos,Sebastien Lepine,Eric J. Hilton
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/145/2/52
Abstract: Knowledge of late K and M dwarf metallicities can be used to guide planet searches and constrain planet formation models. However, the determination of metallicities of late-type stars is difficult because visible wavelength spectra of their cool atmospheres contain many overlapping absorption lines, preventing the measurement of equivalent widths. We present new methods, and improved calibrations of existing methods, to determine metallicities of late-K and M dwarfs from moderate resolution (1300 < R < 2000) visible and infrared spectra. We select a sample of 112 wide binary systems that contain a late-type companion to a solar-type primary star. Our sample includes 62 primary stars with previously published metallicities, as well as 50 stars with metallicities determined from our own observations. We use our sample to empirically determine which features in the spectrum of the companion are best correlated with the metallicity of the primary. We derive metallicity calibrations for different wavelength ranges, and show that it is possible to get metallicities reliable to < 0.10 dex using either visible, J, H, or K band spectra. Our calibrations are applicable to dwarfs with metallicities of -1.04 < [Fe/H]< +0.56 and spectral types from K7 to M5. Lastly, we use our sample of wide binaries to test and refine existing calibrations to determine M dwarf metallicities. We find that the zeta parameter, which measures the ratio of TiO can CaH bands, is correlated with [Fe/H] for super-solar metallicities, and zeta does not always correctly identify metal-poor M dwarfs. We also find that existing calibrations in the K and H band are quite reliable for stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5, but are less useful for more metal-poor stars.
The Physical Parameters of the Retired A Star HD185351
John Asher Johnson,Daniel Huber,Tabetha Boyajian,John M. Brewer,Timothy R. White,Kaspar von Braun,Vicente Maestro,Dennis Stello,Thomas Barclay
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/794/1/15
Abstract: We report here an analysis of the physical stellar parameters of the giant star HD185351 using Kepler short-cadence photometry, optical and near infrared interferometry from CHARA, and high-resolution spectroscopy. Asteroseismic oscillations detected in the Kepler short-cadence photometry combined with an effective temperature calculated from the interferometric angular diameter and bolometric flux yield a mean density, rho_star = 0.0130 +- 0.0003 rho_sun and surface gravity, logg = 3.280 +- 0.011. Combining the gravity and density we find Rstar = 5.35 +- 0.20 Rsun and Mstar = 1.99 +- 0.23 Msun. The trigonometric parallax and CHARA angular diameter give a radius Rstar = 4.97 +- 0.07 Rsun. This smaller radius,when combined with the mean stellar density, corresponds to a stellar mass Mstar = 1.60 +- 0.08 Msun, which is smaller than the asteroseismic mass by 1.6-sigma. We find that a larger mass is supported by the observation of mixed modes in our high-precision photometry, the spacing of which is consistent only for Mstar =~ 1.8 Msun. Our various and independent mass measurements can be compared to the mass measured from interpolating the spectroscopic parameters onto stellar evolution models, which yields a model-based mass M_star = 1.87 +- 0.07 Msun. This mass agrees well with the asteroseismic value,but is 2.6-sigma higher than the mass from the combination of asteroseismology and interferometry. The discrepancy motivates future studies with a larger sample of giant stars. However, all of our mass measurements are consistent with HD185351 having a mass in excess of 1.5 Msun.
Newly-Discovered Planets Orbiting HD~5319, HD~11506, HD~75784 and HD~10442 from the N2K Consortium
Matthew J. Giguere,Debra A. Fischer,Matthew J. Payne,John M. Brewer,John Asher Johnson,Andrew W. Howard,Howard T. Isaacson
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/89
Abstract: Initially designed to discover short-period planets, the N2K campaign has since evolved to discover new worlds at large separations from their host stars. Detecting such worlds will help determine the giant planet occurrence at semi-major axes beyond the ice line, where gas giants are thought to mostly form. Here we report four newly-discovered gas giant planets (with minimum masses ranging from 0.4 to 2.1 MJup) orbiting stars monitored as part of the N2K program. Two of these planets orbit stars already known to host planets: HD 5319 and HD 11506. The remaining discoveries reside in previously-unknown planetary systems: HD 10442 and HD 75784. The refined orbital period of the inner planet orbiting HD 5319 is 641 days. The newly-discovered outer planet orbits in 886 days. The large masses combined with the proximity to a 4:3 mean motion resonance make this system a challenge to explain with current formation and migration theories. HD 11506 has one confirmed planet, and here we confirm a second. The outer planet has an orbital period of 1627.5 days, and the newly-discovered inner planet orbits in 223.6 days. A planet has also been discovered orbiting HD 75784 with an orbital period of 341.7 days. There is evidence for a longer period signal; however, several more years of observations are needed to put tight constraints on the Keplerian parameters for the outer planet. Lastly, an additional planet has been detected orbiting HD 10442 with a period of 1043 days.
Planet Hunters: Assessing the Kepler Inventory of Short Period Planets
Megan E. Schwamb,Chris J. Lintott,Debra A. Fischer,Matthew J. Giguere,Stuart Lynn,Arfon M. Smith,John M. Brewer,Michael Parrish,Kevin Schawinski,Robert J. Simpson
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/129
Abstract: We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of \geq 2 R\oplus planets on short period (< 15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, \geq 4 R\oplus Planet Hunters \geq 85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler \geq 4 R\oplus planets suggest suggests the Kepler inventory of \geq 4 R\oplus short period planets is nearly complete.
Prospecting in Ultracool Dwarfs: Measuring the Metallicities of Mid- and Late-M Dwarfs
Andrew W. Mann,Niall R. Deacon,Eric Gaidos,Megan Ansdell,John M. Brewer,Michael C. Liu,Eugene A. Magnier,Kimberly M. Aller
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/147/6/160
Abstract: Metallicity is a fundamental parameter that contributes to the physical characteristics of a star. However, the low temperatures and complex molecules present in M dwarf atmospheres make it difficult to measure their metallicities using techniques that have been commonly used for Sun-like stars. Although there has been significant progress in developing empirical methods to measure M dwarf metallicities over the last few years, these techniques have been developed primarily for early- to mid-M dwarfs. We present a method to measure the metallicity of mid- to late-M dwarfs from moderate resolution (R~2000) K-band (2.2 microns) spectra. We calibrate our formula using 44 wide binaries containing an F, G, K, or early M primary of known metallicity and a mid- to late-M dwarf companion. We show that similar features and techniques used for early M dwarfs are still effective for late-M dwarfs. Our revised calibration is accurate to 0.07 dex for M4.5-M9.5 dwarfs with -0.58<[Fe/H]<+0.56 and shows no systematic trends with spectral type, metallicity, or the method used to determine the primary star metallicity. We show that our method gives consistent metallicities for the components of M+M wide binaries. We verify that our new formula works for unresolved binaries by combining spectra of single stars. Lastly, we show that our calibration gives consistent metallicities with the Mann et al. (2013a) study for overlapping (M4-M5) stars, establishing that the two calibrations can be used in combination to determine metallicities across the entire M dwarf sequence.
Digital Epidemiology
Marcel Salathé ,Linus Bengtsson,Todd J. Bodnar,Devon D. Brewer,John S. Brownstein,Caroline Buckee,Ellsworth M. Campbell,Ciro Cattuto,Shashank Khandelwal,Patricia L. Mabry,Alessandro Vespignani
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002616
Abstract: Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.
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