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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32465 matches for " John Lowman "
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Deadly Inertia: A History of Constitutional Challenges to Canada's Criminal Code Sections on Prostitution  [PDF]
John Lowman
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22005
Abstract: This paper examines rhetoric surrounding prostitution law reform in Canada from 1970 to the present. During the 1950s and 1960s, there was very little media or political attention paid to prostitution. It was not until the mid 1970s that perceived problems with prostitution law began to surface, driven by concerns that the criminal code statute prohibiting street prostitution was not enforceable. In 1983 the Liberal government appointed the Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution to consider options for law and policy reform. However, the Conservative government that received the report in 1985 rejected the sweeping law changes the Special Committee recommended, opting instead to rewrite the street prostitution offence. Since then the murder of somewhere between 200 and 300 street prostitutes has prompted renewed calls for law reform. The debate on law reform culminated in 2006 with a parliamentary review that saw all four federal political parties agreeing that Canada’s prostitution laws are “unacceptable,” but unable to agree about how to change them. The majority report held that consenting adult prostitution should be legal, while the minority report held that it should be prohibited. In 2007 the Standing Committee on the Status of Women recommended that Canada adopt the Nordic model of demand-side prohibition. As the deadlock continues, women in the street sex trade continue to be murdered. Faced with this deadly inertia, two groups of sex workers have challenged several Criminal Code sections relating to prostitution, arguing that they violate several of their Constitutional rights, including their right to “life, liberty and security of the person”. The paper concludes with an update on the progress of the Charter challenges now before the courts.
A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy
Margaret Lowman
Sustainability , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/su1020097
Abstract: On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.
A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004
Michele T Guerin, Wayne Martin, Jarle Reiersen, Olaf Berke, Scott A McEwen, John-Robert Bisaillon, Ruff Lowman
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-49-18
Abstract: Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Flock results were collapsed to the farm level, such that the number of positive flocks and the total number of flocks raised were summed for each farm. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data using automated and manual selection methods. Variables of interest included manure management, water source and treatment, other poultry/livestock on farm, and farm size and management.The 792 flocks raised during the summer seasons originated from 83 houses on 33 farms, and of these, 217 (27.4%) tested positive. The median number of flocks per farm was 14, and the median number of positive flocks per farm was three. Three farms did not have any positive flocks. In general, factors associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter were increasing median flock size on the farm (p ≤ 0.001), spreading manure on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.035), and increasing the number of broiler houses on the farm (p = 0.008 to 0.038). Protective factors included the use of official (municipal) (p = 0.004 to 0.051) or official treated (p = 0.006 to 0.032) water compared to the use of non-official untreated water, storing manure on the farm (p = 0.025 to 0.029), and the presence of other domestic livestock on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.028).Limiting the average flock size, and limiting the number of houses built on new farms, are interventions that require investigation. Water may play a role in the transmission of Campylobacter, therefore the use of official water, and potentially, treating non-official water may reduce the risk of colonization. Manure management practices deserve further attention.Campylobacter spp. remain one of the most frequent bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis around the wor
Emerging Technologies of Polymeric Nanoparticles in Cancer Drug Delivery
Erik Brewer,Jason Coleman,Anthony Lowman
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/408675
Abstract: Polymeric nanomaterials have the potential to improve upon present chemotherapy delivery methods. They successfully reduce side effects while increasing dosage, increase residence time in the body, offer a sustained and tunable release, and have the ability to deliver multiple drugs in one carrier. However, traditional nanomaterial formulations have not produced highly therapeutic formulations to date due to their passive delivery methods and lack of rapid drug release at their intended site. In this paper, we have focused on a few “smart” technologies that further enhance the benefits of typical nanomaterials. Temperature and pH-responsive drug delivery devices were reviewed as methods for triggering release of encapsulating drugs, while aptamer and ligand conjugation were discussed as methods for targeted and intracellular delivery, with emphases on in vitro and in vivo works for each method.
Dispersive Shock Waves in Viscously Deformable Media
Nicholas K. Lowman,Mark A. Hoefer
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2012.628
Abstract: The viscously dominated, low Reynolds' number dynamics of multi-phase, compacting media can lead to nonlinear, dissipationless/dispersive behavior when viewed appropriately. In these systems, nonlinear self-steepening competes with wave dispersion, giving rise to dispersive shock waves (DSWs). Example systems considered here include magma migration through the mantle as well as the buoyant ascent of a low density fluid through a viscously deformable conduit. These flows are modeled by a third-order, degenerate, dispersive, nonlinear wave equation for the porosity (magma volume fraction) or cross-sectional area, respectively. Whitham averaging theory for step initial conditions is used to compute analytical, closed form predictions for the DSW speeds and the leading edge amplitude in terms of the constitutive parameters and initial jump height. Novel physical behaviors are identified including backflow and DSW implosion for initial jumps sufficient to cause gradient catastrophe in the Whitham modulation equations. Theoretical predictions are shown to be in excellent agreement with long-time numerical simulations for the case of small to moderate amplitude DSWs. Verifiable criteria identifying the breakdown of this modulation theory in the large jump regime, applicable to a wide class of DSW problems, are presented.
Fermionic shock waves - dissipative or dispersive?
Nicholas K. Lowman,Mark A. Hoefer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.013605
Abstract: The collision of two clouds of Fermi gas at unitarity (UFG) has been recently observed to lead to shock waves whose regularization mechanism, dissipative or dispersive, is being debated. While classical, dissipative shocks, as in gas dynamics, develop a steep, localized shock front that translates at a well-defined speed, dispersively regularized shocks are distinguished by an expanding region of short wavelength oscillations with two speeds, those of the leading and trailing edges. For typical UFG experimental conditions, the theoretical oscillation length scale is smaller than the resolution of present imaging systems so it is unclear how to determine the shock type from its structure alone. Two experimental methods to determine the appropriate regularization mechanism are proposed: measurement of the shock speed and observation of a one-dimensional collision experiment with sufficiently tight radial confinement.
Dispersive Hydrodynamics in Viscous Fluid Conduits
Nicholas K. Lowman,Mark A. Hoefer
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.023016
Abstract: The evolution of the interface separating a conduit of light, viscous fluid rising buoyantly through a heavy, more viscous, exterior fluid at small Reynolds numbers is governed by the interplay between nonlinearity and dispersion. Previous authors have proposed an approximate model equation based on physical arguments, but a precise theoretical treatment for this two fluid system with a free boundary is lacking. Here, a derivation of the interfacial equation via a multiple scales, perturbation technique is presented. Perturbations about a state of vertically uniform, laminar conduit flow are considered in the context of the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The ratio of interior to exterior viscosities is the small parameter used in the asymptotic analysis, which leads systematically to a maximal balance between buoyancy driven, nonlinear self-steepening and viscous, interfacial stress induced, nonlinear dispersion. This results in a scalar, nonlinear partial differential equation describing large amplitude dynamics of the cross-sectional area of the intrusive fluid conduit, in agreement with previous derivations. The leading order behavior of the two fluid system is completely characterized in terms of the interfacial dynamics. The regime of model validity is characterized and shown to agree with previous experimental studies. Viscous fluid conduits provide a robust setting for the study of nonlinear, dispersive wave phenomena.
Interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits
Nicholas K. Lowman,Mark A. Hoefer,Gennady A. El
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2014.273
Abstract: The free interface separating an exterior, viscous fluid from an intrusive conduit of buoyant, less viscous fluid is known to support strongly nonlinear solitary waves due to a balance between viscosity-induced dispersion and buoyancy-induced nonlinearity. The overtaking, pairwise interaction of weakly nonlinear solitary waves has been classified theoretically for the Korteweg-de Vries equation and experimentally in the context of shallow water waves, but a theoretical and experimental classification of strongly nonlinear solitary wave interactions is lacking. The interactions of large amplitude solitary waves in viscous fluid conduits, a model physical system for the study of one-dimensional, truly dissipationless, dispersive nonlinear waves, are classified. Using a combined numerical and experimental approach, three classes of nonlinear interaction behavior are identified: purely bimodal, purely unimodal, and a mixed type. The magnitude of the dispersive radiation due to solitary wave interactions is quantified numerically and observed to be beyond the sensitivity of our experiments, suggesting that conduit solitary waves behave as "physical solitons." Experimental data are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of the reduced model. Experimental movies are available with the online version of the paper.
Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN
Seonhwa Kim, Scott Lowman, Guichuan Hou, Jerzy Nowak, Barry Flinn, Chuansheng Mei
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-37
Abstract: We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific.Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system.
Comparative MIC evaluation of a generic ceftriaxone by broth microdilution on clinically relevant isolates from an academic hospital complex in South Africa
Warren Lowman, Naseema Aithma, Johan F Coetzee, Adriano G Dusè, Mervyn Mer
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: We evaluated the in vitro microbiological efficacy of a generic ceftriaxone product against several clinically significant organisms collected from sterile sites. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each was determined simultaneously with the reference and the generic ceftriaxone product. Comparative analysis of MICs between the two products for each isolate was performed using both categorical (interpretive) agreement and essential (actual MIC value) agreement. A total of 260 isolates were tested. Overall, there was categorical agreement of 98.9% and essential agreement of 95.8%. The categorical agreement for all isolates (96.7 - 100%) accorded with international standards, as no very major errors were seen and the major error rate was less than 3%. Of the 90 isolates of E. coli (40), Klebsiella spp. (40) and Salmonella spp. (10), 87.6% had an MIC less than or equal to 0.12 mg/l. The generic ceftriaxone product showed equivalent efficacy by MIC determination to the reference formulation. Ceftriaxone remains a viable and useful antimicrobial agent against a variety of clinically relevant organisms in our setting. S Afr Med J 2012;102:102-103.
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