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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34481 matches for " John Davies "
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How to Use a Trafficked Woman. The Alliance between Political and Criminal Trafficking Organisations
John Davies,Benjamin Davies
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.416
Abstract: The principal argument of this paper is that migrant women with secure mobility rights and supportive social networks can avoid or mitigate many trafficking harms. However the paper contends that some actors have conspired to prevent such circumstances so as to pursue diverse political agendas at the expense of migrant women. The paper’s analysis restructures the trafficking contest from organised criminals versus law enforcement agencies to principally a contest between migrant women and those political agents who benefit from the moral panic associated with trafficking. It is then argued that it is these more sophisticated political actors rather than organised criminals and the clients of sex workers are the most important stakeholders in sustaining or exploiting trafficking harm. Therefore, it is concluded that resolving many trafficking harms in the EEA could be achieved by subverting political traffickers through improving migration policy rather than fighting organised crime.
Part-time undergraduate study in civil engineering – students from the workplace
John Davies
Engineering Education , 2008,
Abstract: This is an investigation of part-time undergraduate degree study in civil engineering based at Coventry University. It aimed to answer the following four questions:How do the experiences of part-time students of civil engineering compare with those for other subject areas reported in the literature?What is the difference in performance of part-time and full-time students?What are the reasons for the differences?What should we learn from this?The study incorporated three elements: scrutiny of data on student numbers, age and performance; a questionnaire to allow comparison of factual information on the circumstances of part-time and full-time students; and interviews with 21 part-time students (in groups of four or five) and three part-time graduates (individually).The interviews gave insights into the experiences of part-time students of civil engineering and allowed comparison with those in other subject areas. A study of performance by part-time and full-time students for four academic years between 2002 and 2006 revealed that part-time students outperformed full-time students in terms of grade of honours and marks in modules (6.4 percentage marks on average in every module). The reasons for the better performance of part-time students were considered and it was concluded that the greatest advantage comes from the skills, attitudes, and motivation that part-time students have developed in the workplace. Recommendations are made in terms of better support for part-time students and ways of benefiting from the potential contributions they can make.
Validation of Spectral and Broadband UV-B (290 - 325 nm) Irradiance for Canada  [PDF]
Jacqueline Binyamin, John Davies, Bruce McArthur
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.13008
Abstract: Stratospheric ozone depletion, as a result of increasing chlorofluorocarbons in the stratosphere, allows more UV-B irradiance (290 - 325 nm) to reach the earth’s surface with possible detrimental biological effects. Be-cause there are few UV-B radiation stations, irradiance models are useful tools for estimating irradiances where measurements are not made. Estimates of spectral and broadband irradiances from a numerical model are compared with Brewer spectrophotometer measurements at nine Canadian stations (Alert, Resolute Bay, Churchill, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto) and 26 years of data. The model uses either the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) or the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation for a 49-layer, vertically inhomogeneous, plane-parallel atmosphere, with cloud inserted between the 2 and 3 km heights. Spectral calculations are made at 1 nm intervals. The model uses extraterrestrial spectral irradiance, spectral optical properties for each atmospheric layer for ozone, air mole-cules, and aerosol and surface albedo. A fixed broadband cloud optical depth of 27 was satisfactory for cal-culating cloudy sky irradiances at all stations except in the arctic. Comparisons are made both for daily totals and for monthly averaged spectral and broadband irradiances. The delta-Eddington method is shown to be unsuitable for calculating spectral irradiances under clear skies, at wavelengths less than 305 nm where absorption by ozone is high, and at large solar zenith angles. The er-rors are smaller for overcast conditions. The method is adequate for daily total and monthly averaged spec-tral (? 305 nm) and broadband calculations for all sky conditions, although consistently overestimating ir-radiances. There is a good agreement between broadband measurements and calculations for both daily totals and monthly averages with mean bias error mainly less than 5% of the mean measured daily irradiance and root mean square error less than 25%, decreasing to below 15% for monthly averages.
Comparison of UV-B Broadband Brewer Measurements with Irradiances from Surface-Based and Satellite-Based Models  [PDF]
Jacqueline Binyamin, John Davies, Bruce McArthur
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.13016
Abstract: UV-B irradiance can be estimated from surface meteorological data or from satellite measurements. This paper compares irradiance estimates from the Davies surface-based radiation model and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) satellite model with Brewer spectrophotometer measurements for all sky conditions at six Canadian stations (Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg, Montreal, Halifax and Toronto). The Davies model is applied with both the discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) and the delta-Eddington algorithms to solve the radiative transfer equation. Both models’ estimates are compared with instantaneous Brewer measurements. Both perform similarly with mean bias errors within 6% of the mean measured irradiance for the measurement period and root mean square errors between 25% and 30%.
Feedback through student essay competitions: what makes a good engineering lecturer?
Kate Collins,John Davies
Engineering Education , 2009,
Abstract: The Engineering Subject Centre of the Higher Education Academy has run student essay competitions for some years. In 2007/08 the title was ‘What makes a good engineering lecturer?’. This paper presents an analysis of the 43 submissions, carried out to identify the most commonly cited attributes and to present quotes that convey the spirit of the essays. The same title had been used for the first competition in 2003/04, and the outcomes of the 2007/08 competition are compared with those previously published for the 2003/04 award. The attributes most commonly identified across both sets of essays are use of real-world examples, approachability, enthusiasm, diversity of media, and good communication.
HeartSmartTM: A New Method of Assessing Hydration in Neurosurgical Patients  [PDF]
Kenneth James Warring-Davies, John Martin Bland
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.311108
Abstract: Background: Maintenance of normal fluid homeostasis is challenging in neurosurgical patients. Consequently, we studied hydration assessment in neurosurgical intensive care patients. Methods: Pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution (PACTD) is the conventional method for measuring cardiac index (CI) and mean pulmonary artery occlusion (MPAOP) or wedge pressure (MPWP). We compared values from this technique with those derived from continuous cardiac dynamic monitoring (CCDM)-HeartSmart?, a new, less invasive, software-based technique. Over 4 years, we undertook an audit of 101 paired sets of data from 21 patients with sub-arachnoid hemorrhage who had pulmonary artery flotation catheters inserted as part of their treatment. Measured values of CI and MPWP were obtained retrospectively from patients’ charts and compared with values calculated using CCDM-HeartSmart? software. Results: Using the Bland-Altman method for comparing two measurement techniques, there was good agreement between measured and calculated MPWP (mean of differences –1.81, SD 3.97, SE 0.39, 95% CI –2.59 to 2.04 l/min/m2; two-sided p < 0.0001). The measured and calculated values of CI were also in good agreement (mean of differences 0.36, SD 1.30, SE 0.13, 95% CI 0.109 - 0.619; two-sided p = 0.0055, 95% limits of agreement –2.1 to 2.91 l/min/m2). This indicates that, when estimating CI and MPWP in critically ill neurosurgical patients, CCDM-HeartSmart? provides values close to those generated using PACTD. Conclusions: The CCDM-HeartSmart? could prove invaluable for optimizing response to fluid replacement and for guiding cardiovascular support in neurosurgical patients. This new, simple technology may help to facilitate routine adoption of perioperative optimization of blood flow using early goal-directed therapy.
Convergence of eigenvalues for a highly non-self-adjoint differential operator
E. B. Davies,John Weir
Mathematics , 2008, DOI: 10.1112/blms/bdp120
Abstract: In this paper we study a family of operators dependent on a small parameter $\epsilon > 0$, which arise in a problem in fluid mechanics. We show that the spectra of these operators converge to N as $\epsilon \to 0$, even though, for fixed $\epsilon > 0$, the eigenvalue asymptotics are quadratic.
The effects of perfluorocarbon dosing strategy on cerebral blood flow when starting partial liquid ventilation: A randomized, controlled, experimental study  [PDF]
Mark W. Davies, Kimble R. Dunster, John F. Fraser, Paul B. Colditz
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.23033
Abstract: Introduction: Partial liquid ventilation may benefit the lung disease in preterm neonates but intratracheal instillation of perfluorocarbon increases cerebral blood flow and may cause brain injury. We aimed to determine if the effects of perfluorocarbon administration on cerebral blood flow vary by dose-volume, rate of administration, endotracheal tube portal of entry, or closely targeting PaCO2. Methods: Forty-two dosing events (in eleven rabbits) were randomised to different dosing strategies, including a sham (i.e., placebo/control) dose of air over 20 min, 20 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon slowly over 20 min, 10 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon slowly over 20 min, 10 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon moderately fast over 10 min, 10 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon rapidly over 5 min, 10 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon slowly over 20 min via the endotracheal tube tip lumen (as opposed to the proximal end of the tube used in all other groups), or 10 mL/kg of perfluorocarbon slowly over 20 min whilst targeting a PaCO2 of 45 - 50 mmHg. Blood gases, haemodynamics, cortical cerebral blood flow and carotid flow were recorded continuously for 30 minutes from the start of each dose. Results: Carotid flow increased with 20 mL/kg perfluorocarbon and cortical cerebral blood flow was significantly more variable. Carotid and cortical cerebral blood flow increased using 10 mL/kg or 20 mL/kg with no difference between the two dose-volumes. There was no difference in cerebral blood flow by rate of administration, but carotid blood flow was more variable during slow administration. There were no differences in the increase in cerebral blood flow by portal of entry. If PaCO2 was maintained between 45 - 50 mmHg there was no increase in cerebral blood flow and there was less variable carotid flow. Conclusions: Cerebral blood flow increases with perfluorocarbon dosing. This occurs regardless of the dose-volume of perfluorocarbon. These effects were mitigated by closely targeting PaCO2.
Peri-Implant Crestal Bone Loss: A Putative Mechanism
Yuko Ujiie,Reynaldo Todescan,John E. Davies
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/742439
Abstract: Purpose. The immunological mechanisms of peri-implant crestal bone loss have, hitherto, not been elucidated. We hypothesized that bacterial products from the microgap cause upregulation of cytokines in otherwise healthy peri-implant cells, which results in osteoclast formation and, ultimately, in bone resorption. Materials and Methods. We used RT-PCR and ELISA to assay mediators of osteoclastogenesis in rat and human macrophages (r-and hMO); bone marrow derived stromal cells (r-and hBMCs); and human gingival fibroblasts (hGF)—with or without stimulation by LPS. TRAP positive multinucleate cells were assessed for their resorptive ability. Results. We show that IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were expressed by all examined cell types, and TNF-α was upregulated in hGF. Secretion of IL-1α and IL-1β proteins was stimulated in hMO by LPS, and IL-6 protein secretion was highly stimulated in hBMCs and hGF. Both LPS and RANKL stimulated macrophages to form osteoclast-like TRAP positive cells, which resorbed calcium phosphate substrates. Conclusion. Taken together, the results of our study support the hypothesis that bacterial endotoxins upregulate enhanced mediators of osteoclastogenesis in resident cells found in the healthy peri-implant compartment and that the local synergistic action of cytokines secreted by such cells results in the genesis of resorptively active osteoclasts. 1. Introduction Dental implants facilitate the rehabilitation of edentulous patients, and markedly improve both function and esthetics. However, crestal bone loss on the order of 1.5?mm-1.6?mm has been observed radiographically around some dental implants within the first year of loading [1, 2]. The connection of the abutment to the endosseous component in two-stage systems invariably results in a microgap (10–50?μm), which communicates with the much larger residual cavity created between the abutment screw and the internal implant wall. Previous evidence has shown that Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria found in the oral cavity can colonize the inner surfaces of implants and the microgap area [3–5]; and cause inflammatory reactions in the peri-implant soft tissues. Furthermore, in a fascinating study Zipprich et al. [6] have shown that cyclical loading of the implant/abutment interface can result in the pumping of the liquid contained in implant cavities into the peri-implant compartment. The existence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate at the level of the implant-abutment junction—even around implants placed in areas of meticulous plaque control and clinically healthy, soft tissues—has
Global Habitat Suitability for Framework-Forming Cold-Water Corals
Andrew J. Davies,John M. Guinotte
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018483
Abstract: Predictive habitat models are increasingly being used by conservationists, researchers and governmental bodies to identify vulnerable ecosystems and species' distributions in areas that have not been sampled. However, in the deep sea, several limitations have restricted the widespread utilisation of this approach. These range from issues with the accuracy of species presences, the lack of reliable absence data and the limited spatial resolution of environmental factors known or thought to control deep-sea species' distributions. To address these problems, global habitat suitability models have been generated for five species of framework-forming scleractinian corals by taking the best available data and using a novel approach to generate high resolution maps of seafloor conditions. High-resolution global bathymetry was used to resample gridded data from sources such as World Ocean Atlas to produce continuous 30-arc second (~1 km2) global grids for environmental, chemical and physical data of the world's oceans. The increased area and resolution of the environmental variables resulted in a greater number of coral presence records being incorporated into habitat models and higher accuracy of model predictions. The most important factors in determining cold-water coral habitat suitability were depth, temperature, aragonite saturation state and salinity. Model outputs indicated the majority of suitable coral habitat is likely to occur on the continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The North Pacific has very little suitable scleractinian coral habitat. Numerous small scale features (i.e., seamounts), which have not been sampled or identified as having a high probability of supporting cold-water coral habitat were identified in all ocean basins. Field validation of newly identified areas is needed to determine the accuracy of model results, assess the utility of modelling efforts to identify vulnerable marine ecosystems for inclusion in future marine protected areas and reduce coral bycatch by commercial fisheries.
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