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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 43056 matches for " John Cairns Jr. "
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A synopsis of the book Striking a balance: improvingstewardship of marine areas(by the U. S. National Research Council the operating arm of the U. S National Academiesof Science and Engineering)
John Cairns,Jr,
John Cairns
,Jr

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2000,
Abstract: Sustainable use of the planet will require a more robust regulatory and management framework for marine areas as advances in offshore technology and changes in market conditions lead to an increase in coastal populations and marine recreation and tourism. Although each area of the world presents unique problems, many principles of stewardship, which can appropriately modified, will serve well anywhere on the planet. The purpose of this brief synopsis is to share these principles ot stewardship with colleagues in China. This volume (Striking a balance: improving stewardship of marine areas) notes:" In addition to the governance problems created by multiple nonmarket uses of marine resources and maintaining access to them, existing systems have two fundamental problems first, fragmentation among federal and local agencies and second, not enough participation and coordination of interests at the local level"( p. 4 ). Although this book focuses on marine ecosystems associated with the United States coastline( such as the Gulf of maine/Massachusetts Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary/Florida Bay ecosystem, and the Southern California coast), the issues, the problems, and strategies should be, with minor adjustments, fully applicable anywhere in the world. The following general elements of the framework for improved governance and management of marine areas are given as recommendations(p. 5)Comments given in brackets are those of the author].
A synopsis of the book Ecological Indicators for the Nation John Cairns, Jr
John Cairns,Jr
环境科学学报(英文版) , 2001,
Abstract:
Small islands: harbingers of Earth's ecological fate?
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract:
The ethics of global resource allocation
John Cairns, Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract: NA
Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds
John Cairns, Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract: The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.
Sustainability and the anthropogenic alteration of evolutionary processes
John Cairns, Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract: Persuasive evidence indicates that Earth is now experiencing a major biotic crisis. Even if humankind ceases severe stress on natural systems, the crisis will probably disrupt the basic evolutionary processes that characterized the period preceding the agricultural and industrial revolutions.Proliferation of drug and pesticide resistant species and opportunistic species that thrive in human-dominated ecosystems will become increasingly common. The effect on humankind of altering basic evolutionary processes is uncertain because the understanding of these processes is not robust. The probable result will not be an environment as favorable to humans as the one that has existed for most of human history. Humans probably have altered the environment since Homo sapiens first appeared. However, only in the last two centuries has the degree and rate of change reached levels now considered by many people to be normal , even though the record shows they are not.Greatly improved technology has facilitated increased exploitation of natural resources to unsustainablelevels. This exploitation, in turn, has led to exponential human population growth, which has depleted natural capital (living systems and the services they provide). Economic globalization has ensured that ecosystems far distant from consumers can be and are profitably exploited. Economicgrowth has become a universal mantra that is coupled with a conviction that such growth can continue indefinitely on a finite planet. A major paradigm shift is essential if sustainable use of the planet is to become a reality.
You and Earth's resources
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2004,
Abstract:
Exuberant optimism vs the precautionary principle
John Cairns Jr
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2001,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Management of Earth's resources will not attain sustainability unless tough questions are asked and the merits and disadvantages of conflicting paradigms are rigorously examined. Two major conflicting paradigms are: (1) economic growth will solve all problems, including environmental ones --- the free market has negated the dire environmental forecasts and relegated them to the status of myths; and (2) human society is dependent upon the planet's life support --- system it assumes that the present rate of biotic impoverishment (e.g., species extinction, loss of habitat) will so alter the biosphere that it will be less habitable for humans. Dominant, global practices are based on the first assumption, which, if invalid, will have dire consequences for human society. For example, anthropogenic greenhouse gases causing a modest rise of global temperatures could produce 20 million environmental refugees from Bangladesh alone as a consequence of a sea level rise that would inundate 17% of the country's habitable land. Implementing the second paradigm would require major, mostly unpalatable, changes in human behavior. Since, at present, humans occupy only 1 planet, the precautionary principle suggests acting more cautiously with regard to economic growth until its effects upon the planet's ecological life support system are better understood.
Ethics in environmental politics and sustainable use of the planet
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2001,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Environmental politics, especially regarding sustainable use of the planet, must be based on a shared set of ethical values. Although there is a fundamental conflict between ecological doctrine and human cultures, naturalistic assemblages of plants and animals can co-exist with human society in a mutualistic relationship. Numerous environmental practices of human society have ethical implications and are serious obstacles to the quest for sustainability. Continuing them will probably result in crossing one or more important ecological thresholds, which may result in new ecological conditions less favorable to human society than those that presently exist. Some of the probable conditions (e.g., global climate change) could be characterized as paradigm-shifting catastrophes. Motivational ethics may triumph initially, but consequential ethics may eventually emerge in environmental politics, which would then produce some interesting conditions in a sustainability context. Since humans have only one planet on which to experiment, speculation about possible future scenarios seems prudent, as does precautionary action to avoid undesirable outcomes.
Numeracy and sustainability
John Cairns Jr.
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics , 2003,
Abstract: Sustainable use of the planet is based on the assumption that humankind can maintain conditions suitable for inhabiting the planet indefinitely. No robust evidence supports this assumption nor rejects it, and adequate evidence on this issue may not be available for centuries. Numeracy is the ability to use or understand numerical techniques of mathematics. Even if adequate numerical data were available, the important decisions humankind makes regarding sustainable use of the planet should not be guided by numerical information alone, such as economic numbers, but by eco- and sustainability ethics, which provides a values framework that indicates how the numbers should be used and interpreted.
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