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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32579 matches for " John Butterworth "
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Mycobacterium chimaera Associated Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis  [PDF]
Joseph Butterworth
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2016.64008
Abstract: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potentially fatal condition in which abnormal activation of the immune system results in haemophagocytosis, inflammation and tissue damage. This results in a variety of signs and symptoms but most commonly fever, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, cytopenias, hyperferritinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. There are multiple reports of acquired HLH developing on a background of disseminated Mycobacterium infection. Simultaneously, since 2011, cases of invasive cardiovascular infection caused by Mycobacterium chimaera (M. chimaera) in patients having previously undergone cardiac surgery in Europe have been reported. We report a case of acquired HLH occurring one year after open-heart surgery to place a prosthetic valve due to M. chimaera.
Multiple-use services as an alternative to rural water supply services: A characterisation of the approach
Stef Smits,Barbara van Koppen,Patrick Moriarty,John Butterworth
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Multiple-use services (MUS) have recently gained increased attention as an alternative form of providing rural water services in an integrated manner. This stems from the growing recognition that users anyway tend to use water systems for multiple purposes. This paper aims to characterise this practice on the basis of case evidence collected in eight countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The cases show that people almost universally use water for both domestic and productive activities at and around the homestead. Although seldom the main source of people’s income or food production, these activities are of considerable importance for people’s livelihoods. The extent to which people use water for multiple purposes is closely related to the level of access to water expressed in the form of a water ladder in this paper. The case studies presented demonstrate how access is created by different types and combinations of well-known technologies. Additional financial and management measures are required to ensure sustainability of services. Despite the practical feasibility of the MUS approach, it is not yet widely applied by service providers and sector agencies due to observed barriers in institutional uptake. A better characterisation of MUS, alongside a learning-driven stakeholder process was able to overcome some of these barriers and improve the consideration of multiple uses of water in policy and practice.
Finding practical approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management
John Butterworth,Jeroen Warner,Patrick Moriarty,Stef Smits
Water Alternatives , 2010,
Abstract: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has often been interpreted and implemented in a way that is only really suited to countries with the most developed water infrastructures and management capacities. While sympathetic to many of the criticisms levelled at the IWRM concept and recognising the often disappointing levels of adoption, this paper and the series of papers it introduces identify some alternative ways forward in a developmental context that place more emphasis on the practical in-finding solutions to water scarcity. A range of lighter, more pragmatic and context-adapted approaches, strategies and entry points are illustrated with examples from projects and initiatives in mainly 'developing' countries. The authors argue that a more service-orientated (WASH, irrigation and ecosystem services), locally rooted and balanced approach to IWRM that better matches contexts and capacities should build on such strategies, in addition to the necessary but long-term policy reforms and river basin institution-building at higher levels. Examples in this set of papers not only show that the 'lighter', more opportunistic and incremental approach has potential as well as limitations but also await wider piloting and adoption.
Human IgE responses to Schistosoma mansoni and resistance to reinfection
Dunne, David W.;Butterworth, Anthony E.;Fulford, Anthony J. C.;Ouma, John H.;Sturrock, Robert F.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761992000800014
Abstract: schistosoma mansoni infected kenyan patients were treated and the intensities of their reinfections were followed over the next two years. in addition, their pre- and six month post-treatment serum levels of igg1-4, igm, and ige, specific for schistosoma, egg and adult worm, were measured in elisa. no reinfection took place before six months post-treatment. reinfection intensities varied with age; the younger children becoming reinfected at significantly higher intensities than older individuals. when antibody and reinfection levels were compared, only the six month post-treatment ige response against adult worm correlated negatively with intensities of reinfection and, therefore, was predictive of resistance or immunity to reinfection. ige and igg specific western blots were carried out. the adult worm antigens recognized by ige were restricted compared with the igg responses of the same patients, although no individual antigen was uniquely recognized by the ige isotype. a dominant 22 kda antigen was recognized by most but not all high ige responders. patients with ige responses against this antigen suffered significantly lower subsequent levels of reinfection, compared with non-responders. a monospecific rabbit antiserum against the 22kda adult worm antigen showed that this antigen is specifically located in the tegument of the adult worm and of 'lung' and 'liver' stage schistosomula, but is absent from the early 'skin' schistosomula. it is possible that this antigen is a target for human ige mediated immune effector mechanisms active against the post skin stage schistosomula and that this is boosted by the death of adult worms.
Human antibody responses to Schistosoma mansoni: does antigen directed, isotype restriction result in the production of blocking antibodies?
Dunne, David W.;Fulford, Anthony J. C.;Butterworth, Anthony E.;Koech, David;Ouma, John H.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761987000800016
Abstract: after treatment young kenyan schoolchildren are highly susceptible to reinfection with schistosoma mansoni. older children and adults are resistant to reinfection. there is no evidence that this age related resistance is due to a slow development of protective immunological mechanisms, rather, it appears that young children are susceptible because of the presence of blocking antibodies which decline with age, thus allowing the expression of protective responses. correlations between antibody responses to different stages of the parasite life-cycle suggest that, in young children, antigen directed, isotype restriction of the response against cross-reactive polysaccharide egg antigens results in an ineffectual, or even blocking antibody response to the schistosomulum.
Discovering baryon-number violating neutralino decays at the LHC
Jonathan M. Butterworth,John R. Ellis,Are R. Raklev,Gavin P. Salam
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.241803
Abstract: Recently there has been much interest in the use of single-jet mass and jet substructure to identify boosted particles decaying hadronically at the LHC. We develop these ideas to address the challenging case of a neutralino decaying to three quarks in models with baryonic violation of R-parity. These decays have previously been found to be swamped by QCD backgrounds. We demonstrate for the first time that such a decay might be observed directly at the LHC with high significance, by exploiting characteristics of the scales at which its composite jet breaks up into subjets.
JetWeb: A WWW Interface and Database for Monte Carlo Tuning and Validation
J. M. Butterworth,S. Butterworth
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0010-4655(03)00208-X
Abstract: A World Wide Web interface to a Monte Carlo validation and tuning facility is described. The aim of the package is to allow rapid and reproducible comparisons to be made between detailed measurements at high-energy physics colliders and general physics simulation packages. The package includes a relational database, a Java servlet query and display facility, and clean interfaces to simulation packages and their parameters.
The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) Establishes a Trafficking Vesicle Pool Responsible for Its Regulation
Robert S. Edinger, Carol A. Bertrand, Christine Rondandino, Gerard A. Apodaca, John P. Johnson, Michael B. Butterworth
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046593
Abstract: The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the rate-limiting step for sodium reabsorption across tight epithelia. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) stimulation promotes ENaC trafficking to the apical surface to increase channel number and transcellular Na+ transport. Removal of corticosteroid supplementation in a cultured cortical collecting duct cell line reduced ENaC expression. Concurrently, the number of vesicles trafficked in response to cAMP stimulation, as measured by a change in membrane capacitance, also decreased. Stimulation with aldosterone restored both the basal and cAMP-stimulated ENaC activity and increased the number of exocytosed vesicles. Knocking down ENaC directly decreased both the cAMP-stimulated short-circuit current and capacitance response in the presence of aldosterone. However, constitutive apical recycling of the Immunoglobulin A receptor was unaffected by alterations in ENaC expression or trafficking. Fischer Rat Thyroid cells, transfected with α,β,γ-mENaC had a significantly greater membrane capacitance response to cAMP stimulation compared to non-ENaC controls. Finally, immunofluorescent labeling and quantitation revealed a smaller number of vesicles in cells where ENaC expression was reduced. These findings indicate that ENaC is not a passive passenger in regulated epithelial vesicle trafficking, but plays a role in establishing and maintaining the pool of vesicles that respond to cAMP stimulation.
The Technology of Waste, Biofuels and Global Warming in Viable Closed Loop, Sustainable Operations
William R. Butterworth
Energies , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/en20401192
Abstract: This research set out to explore and develop a route relating the recycling of urban and industrial wastes to land to produce agricultural crops with energy crops in the rotation, using the green leaf to “harvest” sunlight and to examine the sequestration of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen in a sustainable closed loop. Further, to establish if the pollution, particularly of nitrogen and phosphates (often associated with cultivations and use of mineral fertilisers) could be reduced or eliminated, so as to be able to develop systems which could contribute to the reversal of global warming. Finally, to probe whether practical operators on the ground could understand the technology, use it, and express what they were doing in a way acceptable to a wider society.
The validity of the SF-36 in an Australian National Household Survey: demonstrating the applicability of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examination of health inequalities
Peter Butterworth, Timothy Crosier
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-44
Abstract: Data from 13,055 respondents who completed the first wave of the HILDA Survey were analysed to determine the psychometric properties of the SF-36 and the relationship of the SF-36 scales to other measures of health, disability, social functioning and demographic characteristics.Results of principle components analysis were similar to previous Australian and international reports. Survey scales demonstrated convergent and divergent validity, and different markers of social status demonstrated unique patterns of outcomes across the scales.Results demonstrated the validity of the SF-36 data collected during the first wave of the HILDA Survey and support its use in research examining health inequalities and population health characteristics in Australia.While much health research focuses on objective outcome measures such as mortality or morbidity defined through clinical assessment, there is an increasing emphasis on self-reported measures of health status and health-related quality of life. Self-reported measures of health status have been included in epidemiological and community-based survey research. Their use reflects the importance of considering the patients' point of view and the multidimensional nature of health [1-3].The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36) is one of the most widely used, self-completion measures of health status. It was developed to meet the psychometric standards necessary for group comparisons, to enable profiling of functional health and well-being, and to quantify disease burden [3]. It comprises 36 items of which all but one are used to measure eight important health concepts that are frequently examined through health surveys. These eight concepts or scales are: Physical Functioning; Role-Physical (interference with work or other daily activities due to physical health); Bodily Pain; General Health; Vitality; Social Functioning (interference with normal social activities); Role-Emotional (interference with work or other daily acti
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