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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32666 matches for " John Adamson "
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Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy
John Adamson,Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC) with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105) between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center) L1 (Japanese) and their L2 (English). Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46) of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011) in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.
Allopathic health professionals' perceptions towards traditional health practice in Lilongwe, Malawi
John Chipolombwe, Adamson S Muula
Malawi Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Traditional (non-allopathic) health care is recognized as an important aspect of health care delivery in many developing countries. African Heads of State and Governments meeting in July 2001 in Lusaka, Zambia declared the period 2001-2010 as the Decade for African Traditional Medicine1. In 2004, we conducted a cross sectional study in Lilongwe, Malawi using in-depth interviews and self-administered questionnaires, aimed to determine the perceptions of allopathic health care professionals towards traditional health care. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 17(4) 2005: 131
Co-constructing Understanding of Self Access through Conversational Narrative
John Adamson,Howard Brown,Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson
Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This study has shown how stakeholders of a new Self Access Learning Center (SALC) co-construct views about the center’s development though conversational narratives. Conversational narratives are a means in this study to provide important insights into SALC’s growth and also represent sites of valuable social practice to strengthen collegiality among its participants. This dialogic process illustrates a diversity of perspectives which have emerged over the first year in its growth, and which inform the center’s management on metaphors of self access, language policy, its integration with university curricula, and how it and its staff are positioned in the organization. As part of a larger ethnographic study into the center, these unscripted, free-form dialogues are valued because they mirror the flat hierarchical structure which the center aims to support in its community of practice to legitimize its participants’ voices.
Identification of N-acetylglucosaminyltranferase-IV as a modifier of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 activity  [PDF]
Amy L. Adamson
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.31001
Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus is a prevalent human herpesvirus, with about 95% of the world’s adult population positive for anti-EBV antigen antibodies. After the initial infection and production of new virus particles, the virus may enter a latent state within a subset of cells, and therefore can remain within the host indefinitely. Epstein-Barr virus contributes to a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers. We have created a model system in Drosophila melanogaster to study the effect of expression of the Epstein-Barr virus protein BZLF1, and to identify cellular proteins that mediate BZLF1 activity. Here we present the results of a genetic screen that determined that the Drosophila melanogaster CG9384 gene (an N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase) is a significant modulator of BZLF1 activity and EBV early lytic replication.

Real-time assessment of cigarette smoke particle deposition in vitro
Jason Adamson, Sophie Hughes, David Azzopardi, John McAughey, Marianna D Ga?a
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-98
Abstract: The QCM chamber was able to detect mass differences between the different products within the nanogram range. 3R4F reference cigarette smoke deposition ranged from 25.75 ±2.30?μg/cm2 (1:5) to 0.22 ±0.03?μg/cm2 (1:400). 1?mg cigarette smoke deposition was less and ranged from 1.42 ±0.26?μg/cm2 (1:5), to 0.13 ±0.02?μg/cm2 (1:100). Spectrofluorometric analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlation of particulate deposition with the QCM (p?<?0.05), and regression R2 value were 97.4?%. The fitted equation for the linear model which describes the relationship is: QCM?=??0.6796?+?0.9744 chemical spectrofluorescence.We suggest the QCM is a reliable, effective and simple tool that can be used to quantify smoke particulate deposition in real-time, in vitro and can be used to quantify other aerosols delivered to our chamber for assessment.Cigarette smoke is a complex and dynamic aerosol consisting of at least 5,600 chemicals and toxicants found across two phases, the particulate (tar) and vapour phase [1]. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the development of systems for in vitro biological and toxicological assessment of whole smoke [2-11]. However, despite these advancements there have not been consistent approaches in reporting accurately the dose of whole smoke delivered to in vitro cultures.Understanding dosimetry is essential when attempting to mimic or extrapolate human smoking behavior and in vivo doses to in vitro models. Whole smoke dose is dependent on the machine used to generate, dilute and deliver smoke and is variously described as a percentage of smoke, a fraction of smoke, ratios of smoke to air, puff number, total exposure of micrograms per insert, or as a flow rate of mixing air and vacuum applied to a smoke dilutor [2,3,5,6,9-11]. This is a relatively new and challenging field but is an increasingly important point of discussion within the industry. On a broader note, the need to quantify absolute chemical or particle deposition in in
Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine
Jason Adamson, David Azzopardi, Graham Errington, Colin Dickens, John McAughey, Marianna D Ga?a
Chemistry Central Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-5-50
Abstract: The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS) measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells), exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2)) demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber.These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.Molecular mechanisms and pathways elucidating cigarette smoking disease processes are still not well understood. Abundant epidemiological studies and research have linked smoking to a number of diseases including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease; identified inflammatory and oxidant stress mechanisms having a pivotal role in all of these processes [1]. Physiologically-relevant in vitro model systems, in which human lung cells and tissues can be exposed to appropriate doses of cigarette smoke may provide useful tools to interpret these processes and identify other mechanisms. There are numerous studies reporting the development of such in vitro models utilising a variety of cell types and syste
Human resources requirements for highly active antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Malawi
Adamson S Muula, John Chipeta, Seter Siziya, Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Ronald H Mataya, Edward Kataika
BMC Health Services Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-208
Abstract: We obtained data on the total number of patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment program from the Malawi National AIDS Commission and Ministry of Health, HIV Unit, and the number of registered health professionals from the relevant regulatory bodies. We also estimated number of health professionals required to deliver highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) using estimates of human resources from the literature. We also obtained data from the Ministry of Health on the actual number of nurses, clinical officers and medical doctors providing services in HAART clinics. We then made comparisons between the human resources situation on the ground and the theoretical estimates based on explicit assumptions.There were 610 clinicians (396 clinical officers and 214 physicians), 44 pharmacists and 98 pharmacy technicians and 7264 nurses registered in Malawi. At the end of March 2007 there were 85 clinical officer and physician full-time equivalents (FTEs) and 91 nurse FTEs providing HAART to 95,674 patients. The human resources used for the delivery of HAART comprised 13.9% of all clinical officers and physicians and 1.1% of all nurses. Using the estimated numbers of health professionals from the literature required 15.7–31.4% of all physicians and clinical officers, 66.5–199.3% of all pharmacists and pharmacy technicians and 2.6 to 9.2% of all the available nurses. To provide HAART to all the 170,000 HIV infected persons estimated as clinically eligible would require 4.7% to 16.4% of the total number of nurses, 118.1% to 354.2% of all the available pharmacists and pharmacy technicians and 27.9% to 55.7% of all clinical officers and physicians. The actual number of health professionals working in the delivery of HAART in the clinics represented 44% to 88.8% (for clinical officers and medical doctors) and 13.6% and 47.6% (for nurses), of what would have been needed based on the literature estimation.HAART provision is a labour intensive exercise. Although these
In vivo quantification of embryonic and placental growth during gestation in mice using micro-ultrasound
Junwu Mu, John C Slevin, Dawei Qu, Sarah McCormick, S Lee Adamson
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-6-34
Abstract: We used 30–40 MHz ultrasound to quantify embryonic and placental morphometry in isoflurane-anesthetized pregnant CD-1 mice from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E18.5 (full-term), and for C57Bl/6J, B6CBAF1, and hIGFBP1 pregnant transgenic mice at E17.5.Gestational sac dimension provided the earliest measure of conceptus size. Sac dimension derived using regression analysis increased from 0.84 mm at E7.5 to 6.44 mm at E11.5 when it was discontinued. The earliest measurement of embryo size was crown-rump length (CRL) which increased from 1.88 mm at E8.5 to 16.22 mm at E16.5 after which it exceeded the field of view. From E10.5 to E18.5 (full term), progressive increases were observed in embryonic biparietal diameter (BPD) (0.79 mm to 7.55 mm at E18.5), abdominal circumference (AC) (4.91 mm to 26.56 mm), and eye lens diameter (0.20 mm to 0.93 mm). Ossified femur length was measureable from E15.5 (1.06 mm) and increased linearly to 2.23 mm at E18.5. In contrast, placental diameter (PD) and placental thickness (PT) increased from E10.5 to E14.5 then remained constant to term in accord with placental weight. Ultrasound and light microscopy measurements agreed with no significant bias and a discrepancy of less than 25%. Regression equations predicting gestational age from individual variables, and embryonic weight (BW) from CRL, BPD, and AC were obtained. The prediction equation BW = -0.757 + 0.0453 (CRL) + 0.0334 (AC) derived from CD-1 data predicted embryonic weights at E17.5 in three other strains of mice with a mean discrepancy of less than 16%.Micro-ultrasound provides a feasible tool for in vivo morphometric quantification of embryonic and placental growth parameters in mice and for estimation of embryonic gestational age and/or body weight in utero.Genetically-altered mouse models are proving powerful tools for studying the genetic regulation of embryonic and placental growth and development [1-3], and the interaction between genes and the environment on intrauterine and
The Impact of Food and Nutrient-Based Standards on Primary School Children’s Lunch and Total Dietary Intake: A Natural Experimental Evaluation of Government Policy in England
Suzanne Spence, Jennifer Delve, Elaine Stamp, John N. S. Matthews, Martin White, Ashley J. Adamson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078298
Abstract: In 2005, the nutritional content of children’s school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children’s total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4–7 years (n = 385 in 2003–4; n = 632 in 2008–9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children’s mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change ?128 mg, 95% CI: ?183 to ?73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (?1.8%, ?2.8 to ?0.9) and saturated fat (?1.0%; ?1.6 to ?0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 μg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children’s total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children’s diet.
hMPV Lineage Nomenclature and Heparin Binding
Penelope Adamson,Sutthiwan Thammawat,Gamaliel Muchondo,Tania Sadlon,John Williams,David Gordon
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5102546
Abstract: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), first described in 2001 [1], is responsible for causing serious respiratory illness in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Four distinct lineages of hMPV have been identified with the original nomenclature for these subgroups (A1, A2, B1 and B2), reported by van den Hoogen et al. [2], utilised by many. An alternate terminology (1A, 1B, 2A and 2B) was also published by Ishiguro et al. in 2004 [3] which has been adopted by others. However, this has caused some confusion in the interpretation of publication results as the terminology is similar yet describes different subtypes. As a result, a number of investigators have made a submission to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV, ICTV taxonomic proposal 2012.012V) for the official adoption of the original terminology as an approved nomenclature for hMPV [4]. We welcome this officially approved nomenclature which should provide clarification of these subtypes in future. Therefore to assist with the interpretation of our recently published research in the 2012 special issue of Viruses: Pneumoviruses and Metapneumoviruses entitled “Diversity in Glycosaminoglycan Binding Amongst hMPV G Protein Lineages” [5] we have updated the Figure 3 in this letter (see Figure 1), showing the proposed ICTV terminology compared to the Ishiguro classification (used in our publication). Note that in the original publication the alphanumeric order for the Ishiguro classification was transposed (e.g., 1A was referred to as A1).
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