Abstract:
Symplectic and Poisson structures of certain moduli spaces/Huebschmann,J./ Abstract: Let $\pi$ be the fundamental group of a closed surface and $G$ a Lie group with a biinvariant metric, not necessarily positive definite. It is shown that a certain construction due to A. Weinstein relying on techniques from equivariant cohomology may be refined so as to yield (i) a symplectic structure on a certain smooth manifold $\Cal M(\Cal P,G)$ containing the space $\roman{Hom}(\pi,G)$ of homomorphisms and, furthermore, (ii) a hamiltonian $G$-action on $\Cal M(\Cal P,G)$ preserving the symplectic structure, with momentum mapping $\mu \colon \Cal M(\Cal P,G) \to g^*$, in such a way that the reduced space equals the space $\roman{Rep}(\pi,G)$ of representations. Our approach is somewhat more general in that it also applies to twisted moduli spaces; in particular, it yields the {\smc Narasimhan-Seshadri} moduli spaces of semistable holomorphic vector bundles by {\it symplectic reduction in finite dimensions}.This implies that, when the group $G$ is compact, such a twisted moduli space inherits a structure of {\it stratified symplectic space}, and that the strata of these twisted moduli spaces have finite symplectic volume.

Abstract:
In earlier work we have shown that the moduli space $N$ of flat connections for the (trivial) $\roman{SU(2)}$-bundle on a closed surface of genus $\ell \geq 2$ inherits a structure of stratified symplectic space with two connected strata $N_Z$ and $N_{(T)}$ and $2^{2\ell}$ isolated points. In this paper we show that, close to each point of $N_{(T)}$, the space $N$ and its Poisson algebra look like a product of $\bold C^{\ell}$ endowed with the standard symplectic Poisson structure with the reduced space and Poisson algebra of the system of $(\ell-1)$ particles in the plane with total angular momentum zero, while close to one of the isolated points, the Poisson algebra on $N$ looks like that of the reduced system of $\ell$ particles in $\bold R^3$ with total angular momentum zero. Moreover, in the genus two case where the space $N$ is known to be smooth we locally describe the Poisson algebra and the various underlying symplectic structures on the strata and their mutual positions explicitly in terms of the Poisson structure.

Abstract:
Given a compact Lie group, endowed with a bi-invariant Riemannian metric, its complexification inherits a Kaehler structure having twice the kinetic energy of the metric as its potential, and Kaehler reduction with reference to the adjoint action yields a stratified Kaehler structure on the resulting adjoint quotient. Exploiting classical invariant theory, in particular bisymmetric functions and variants thereof, we explore the singular Poisson-Kaehler geometry of this quotient. Among other things we prove that, for various compact groups, the real coordinate ring of the adjoint quotient is generated, as a Poisson algebra, by the real and imaginary parts of the fundamental characters. We also show that singular Kaehler quantization of the geodesic flow on the reduced level yields the irreducible algebraic characters of the complexified group.

Abstract:
For a stratified symplectic space, a suitable concept of stratified Kaehler polarization, defined in terms of an appropriate Lie-Rinehart algebra, encapsulates Kaehler polarizations on the strata and the behaviour of the polarizations across the strata and leads to the notion of stratified Kaehler space. This notion establishes an intimate relationship between nilpotent orbits, singular reduction, invariant theory, reductive dual pairs, Jordan triple systems, symmetric domains, and pre-homogeneous spaces; in particular, in the world of singular Poisson geometry, the closures of principal holomorphic nilpotent orbits, positive definite hermitian JTS's, and certain pre-homogeneous spaces appear as different incarnations of the same structure. The space of representations of the fundamental group of a closed surface in a compact Lie group inherits a (positive) normal (stratified) Kaehler structure, as does the closure of a holomorphic nilpotent orbit in a semisimple Lie algebra of hermitian type. The closure of the principal holomorphic nilpotent orbit arises from a regular semisimple holomorphic orbit by contraction. Symplectic reduction carries a (positive) Kaehler manifold to a (positive) normal Kaehler space in such a way that the sheaf of germs of polarized functions thereupon coincides with the ordinary sheaf of germs of holomorphic functions. Symplectic reduction establishes a close relationship between singular reduced spaces and nilpotent orbits of the dual groups. Projectivization of holomorphic nilpotent orbits yields exotic stratified Kaehler structures on complex projective spaces and on certain complex projective varieties including complex projective quadrics. Physical examples are provided by certain reduced spaces arising from angular momentum zero.

Abstract:
Let G be a general (not necessarily finite dimensional compact) Lie group, let g be its Lie algebra, let Cg be the cone on g in the category of differential graded Lie algebras, and consider the functor which assigns to a chain complex V the V-valued total de Rham complex of G. We describe the G-equivariant de Rham cohomology in terms of a suitable relative differential graded Ext, defined on the appropriate category of (G,Cg)-modules. The meaning of "relative" is made precise via the dual standard construction associated with the monad involving the aforementioned functor and the associated forgetful functor. The corresponding infinitesimal equivariant cohomology is the relative differential Ext over Cg relative to g. The functor under discussion decomposes into two functors, the functor which determines differentiable cohomology in the sense of Hochschild-Mostow and the functor which determines the infinitesimal equivariant theory, suitably interpreted. This functor decomposition, in turn, entails an extension of a Decomposition Lemma due to Bott. Appropriate models for the differential graded Ext involving a comparison between a suitably defined simplicial Weil coalgebra and the Weil coalgebra dual to the familiar ordinary Weil algebra yield small models for equivariant de Rham cohomology including the standard Weil and Cartan models for the special case where the group G is compact and connected. Koszul duality in de Rham theory results from these considerations in a straightforward manner.

Abstract:
Our main objective is to demonstrate how homological perturbation theory (HPT) results over the last 40 years immediately or with little extra work give some of the Koszul duality results that have appeared in the last decade. Higher homotopies typically arise when a huge object, e. g. a chain complex defining various invariants of a certain geometric situation, is cut to a small model, and the higher homotopies can then be dealt with concisely in the language of sh-structures (strong homotopy structures). This amounts to precise ways of handling the requisite additional structure encapsulating the various coherence conditions. Given e. g. two augmented differential graded algebras A and B, an sh-map from A to B is a twisting cochain from the reduced bar construction of A to B and, in this manner, the class of morphisms of augmented differential graded algebras is extended to that of sh-morphisms. In the present paper, we explore small models for equivariant (co)homology via differential homological algebra techniques including homological perturbation theory which, in turn, is a standard tool to handle sh-structures. Koszul duality, for a finite type exterior algebra on odd positive degree generators, then comes down to a duality between the category of sh-modules over that algebra and that of sh-comodules over its reduced bar construction. This kind of duality relies on the extended functoriality of the differential graded Tor-, Ext-, Cotor-, and Coext functors, extended to the appropriate sh-categories. We construct the small models as certain twisted tensor products and twisted Hom-objects. These are chain and cochain models for the chains and cochains on geometric bundles and are compatible with suitable additional structure.

Abstract:
Higher homotopy generalizations of Lie-Rinehart algebras, Gerstenhaber-, and Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras are explored. These are defined in terms of various antisymmetric bilinear operations satisfying weakened versions of the Jacobi identity, as well as in terms of operations involving more than two variables of the Lie triple systems kind. A basic tool is the Maurer-Cartan algebra-the algebra of alternating forms on a vector space so that Lie brackets correspond to square zero derivations of this algebra-and multialgebra generalizations thereof. The higher homotopies are phrased in terms of these multialgebras. Applications to foliations are discussed: objects which serve as replacements for the Lie algebra of vector fields on the "space of leaves" and for the algebra of multivector fields are developed, and the spectral sequence of a foliation is shown to arise as a special case of a more general spectral sequence including as well the Hodge-de Rham spectral sequence.

Abstract:
Let g be a differential graded Lie algebra and suppose given a contraction of chain complexes of g onto a general chain complex M. We show that the data determine an sh-Lie algebra structure on M, that is, a coalgebra perturbation of the coalgebra differential on the cofree coaugmented differential graded cocommutative coalgebra S' on the suspension of M, a Lie algebra twisting cochain from the perturbed coalgebra S" to the given Lie algebra g, and an extension of this Lie algebra twisting cochain to a contraction of chain complexes from the Cartan-Chevalley-Eilenberg coalgebra on g onto S" which is natural in the data. This extends a result established in a joint paper of the author with J. Stashef [Forum math. 14 (2002), 847-868, math.AG/9906036] where only the particular where M is the homology of g has been explored.

Abstract:
Higher homotopies are nowadays playing a prominent role in mathematics as well as in certain branches of theoretical physics. We recall some of the connections between the past and the present developments. Higher homotopies were isolated within algebraic topology at least as far back as the 1940's. Prompted by the failure of the Alexander-Whitney multiplication of cocycles to be commutative, Steenrod developed certain operations which measure this failure in a coherent manner. Dold and Lashof extended Milnor's classifying space construction to associative H-spaces, and a careful examination of this extension led Stasheff to the discovery of An-spaces and Ainfty-spaces as notions which control the failure of associativity in a coherent way so that the classifying space construction can still be pushed through. Algebraic versions of higher homotopies have, as we all know, led Kontsevich eventually to the proof of the formality conjecture. Homological perturbation theory (HPT), in a simple form first isolated by Eilenberg and Mac Lane in the early 1950's, has nowadays become a standard tool to handle algebraic incarnations of higher homotopies. A basic observation is that higher homotopy structures behave much better relative to homotopy than strict structures, and HPT enables one to exploit this observation in various concrete situations which, in particular, leads to the effective calculation of various invariants which are otherwise intractable. Higher homotopies abound but they are rarely recognized explicitly and their significance is hardly understood; at times, their appearance might at first glance even come as a surprise, for example in the Kodaira-Spencer approach to deformations of complex manifolds or in the theory of foliations.

Abstract:
Let R be a commutative ring which contains the rationals as a subring and let g be a chain complex. Suppose given an sh-Lie algebra structure on g, that is, a coalgebra perturbation of the coalgebra differential on the cofree coaugmented differential graded cocommutative coalgebra T' on the suspension of g and write the perturbed coalgebra as T". Suppose, furthermore, given a contraction of g onto a chain complex M. We show that the data determine an sh-Lie algebra structure on M, that is, a coalgebra perturbation of the coalgebra differential on the cofree coaugmented differential graded cocommutative coalgebra S' on the suspension of M, a Lie algebra twisting cochain from the perturbed coalgebra S" to the loop Lie algebra L on the perturbed coalgebra T", and an extension of this Lie algebra twisting cochain to a contraction of chain complexes from the Cartan-Chevalley-Eilenberg coalgebra on L onto S" which is natural in the data. For the special case where M and g are connected we also construct an explicit extension of the perturbed retraction to an sh-Lie map. This approach includes a very general solution of the master equation.