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The Methodological Implications of the Schutz-Parsons Debate  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31006

The aim of this paper is an analysis of the different standpoints of Parsons and Schutz concerning Weber’s suggestion that sociological explanations have to include the subjective point of view of the actors, the Cartesian Dilemma that the actor’s consciousness is not accessible to the researcher, and the Kantian Problem that theories are necessary in order to interpret sensory data, but that there is no guarantee that these theories are true. The comparison of Schutz’s and Parsons’s positions shows that Parsons’s methodology is na?ve and unsuitable for a sociological analysis. But although Schutz’s methodological standpoint is much more reasonable, it is also problematic, because it excludes highly abstract social “facts” such as social systems from the research agenda. Parsons can deal with such highly abstract facts, despite the drawback that with his methodology the truth content of theories cannot be judged.

Max Weber’s Methodology: The Method of Falsification Applied to Text Interpretations  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43038

Text interpretations are usually leading to ambiguous results. This is especially the case for the interpretation of Max Weber’s methodology. I discuss Thomas Burger’s interpretation that Weber applied Rickert’s methodology and that he never developed his own standpoint regarding the methodological problems. In contrast to this view, I propose an alternative interpretation based on the Methodenstreitin economics and the philosophies of Kant and Rickert. In my opinion Weber offered a very unique solution to an old philosophical problem, which resulted in a complete break with the Platonic and Aristotelian tradition. His solution is what I call the postulate of internal consistency (a logical consistent application of an arbitrary scheme of interpretation). I will use Popper’s method of deductive falsification to decide if Burger’s or my interpretation produces fewer contradictions.

Modern Sovereign Money—Part I: The Moral Hazard of Fractional Reserve Banking  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.69007
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show that problems in financial markets are not the result of unethical behaviour of specific individuals, but instead are caused by a fundamental conflict of interests between the private banks and society. By inflating bubbles through fractional reserve banking and securitization the private banks can increase profits but also increase the risks for the society at large. I will discuss why the most common proposals for reducing the risk for society are very likely not solving the problem, because they do not resolve the fundamental conflict of interest.
Modern Sovereign Money—Part II: A Synthesis of the Chicago Plan, Sovereign Money, and the Modern Money Theory  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.69008
Abstract: In the first part of this series, I demonstrated that the current fractional reserve banking system produces a fundamental conflict of interest between private banks and society. The aim of this second part is to describe three radical solutions to this interest conflict. The Chicago Plan and the Sovereign Money approach propose to prohibit private banks to create money by abolishing fractional reserve banking. The Modern Money Theory on the other hand tries to challenge the current economic systems as a whole based on chartalist ideas. All three approaches have serious deficits. However, they are complementing each other well. The Modern Money Theory solves the main problem of the Chicago Plan and the Sovereign Money proposal, whereas the latter two solve the major issues of the former. I will outline a synthesis of those three theories in order to overcome the interest conflict between the private banks and society.
Expression of classic cadherins and δ-protocadherins in the developing ferret retina
Johannes Etzrodt, K Krishna-K, Christoph Redies
BMC Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-153
Abstract: All cadherins investigated by us are expressed differentially by restricted populations of retinal cells during specific periods of the ferret retinogenesis. For example, during embryonic development, some cadherins are exclusively expressed in the outer, proliferative zone of the neuroblast layer, whereas other cadherins mark the prospective ganglion cell layer or cells in the prospective inner nuclear layer. These expression patterns anticipate histogenetic changes that become visible in Nissl or nuclear stainings at later stages. In parallel to the ongoing development of retinal circuits, cadherin expression becomes restricted to specific subpopulations of retinal cell types, especially of ganglion cells, which express most of the investigated cadherins until adulthood. A comparison to previous results in chicken and mouse reveals overall conserved expression patterns of some cadherins but also species differences.The spatiotemporally restricted expression patterns of 7 classic cadherins and 8 δ-protocadherins indicate that cadherins provide a combinatorial adhesive code that specifies developing retinal cell populations and intraretinal as well as retinofugal neural circuits in the developing ferret retina.The vertebrate retina develops as a ventral outgrowth of the forebrain vesicle; invagination of the primary optic vesicle leads to a two-layered optic cup that differentiates into an outer, pigmented epithelium and an inner, multilayered, neural epithelium, which is the focus of our study. The mature neural retina comprises distinct sets of neurons, each with a characteristic morphology, location and connectivity. Together, they form a highly sophisticated network, arranged in distinct layers [reviewed in [1,2]]. Retinal development involves the processes of cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. These processes are mediated by molecular mechanisms similar to those in the rest of the brain.Many studies have investigated the organization and dev
Ethical Issues of Globalizing Liberal Education: The Case of Japan  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Creative Education (CE) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2020.111001
Abstract: Is it ethically justifiable to teach liberal education in non-Western countries, which might have a negative impact on the career of those programs’ graduates, because they could be regarded as troublemakers, who destroy their own culture? In this paper,?I will show that a fundamental value conflict exists between liberal education with its emphasis on autonomy and Japanese culture with its emphasis on harmony. But if this is the case, is the application of liberal education in Japan not cultural imperialism? I will argue that the moral dilemma can be dissolved by infusing Japanese area studies throughout the curriculum of a liberal arts program with its emphasis on the Western tradition. Such an integration would not privilege any kind of knowledge, and would give students real choices about what kind of values are better for their life and their society.
From the Hobbes-Parsons Problem to a Non-Linear Dimensionalist Model of Cultures  [PDF]
Christian Etzrodt
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2020.101004
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to reconceptualize the classical problem of social order in Thomas Hobbes and Talcott Parsons by utilizing the tool of game theory, and thereby to formulate its motivational and institutional solutions as the basis of a theoretically guided construction of major cultural types. An analysis of the social-order problem shall be presented based on the insight that three aspects (the nature of the cooperation problem as well as motivational and institutional solutions) of Hobbes’s and Parsons’s approach are important. Finally, the three motivational solutions (habits, morality, and altruism) can be combined with the three institutional solutions (rituals, markets, and bureaucracies) in order to form three ideal-types of cultures (one traditional and two modern types), which allows the perception of different types of modernities.
Notification Services for the Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.25042
Abstract: The Server-Based Certificate Validation Protocol allows PKI clients to delegate to a server the construction or validation of certification paths. The protocol’s specification focuses on the communication between the server and the client and its security. It does not discuss how the servers can efficiently locate the necessary PKI resources like certificate or certificate revocation lists. In this paper we concentrate on this topic. We present a simple and effective method to facilitate locating and using various PKI resources by the servers, without modifying the protocol. We use the extension mechanism of the protocol for notifying the servers about PKI repositories, certificates, and revocations. We specify the tasks of the servers and certificate issu-ers and define the messages that are exchanged between them. A proof of concept is given by implementing an SCVP server, a client, and the proposed method in Java.
Mineral and Trace Element Concentrations in Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Leaf, Fruit and Fruit Juice  [PDF]
Simla Basar, Johannes Westendorf
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38155
Abstract: Fruit and leaf of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) have been used traditionally as food and for medicinal purposes by South Pacific populations since over two thousand years. Recently noni fruit juice became very popular as health beverage worldwide. Manufacturers and distributors of noni juice often praise the high content of minerals and trace elements in conjunction with the geological situation of the origin of the raw noni material. We therefore performed an investigation about the metal concentration of noni fruit, leaf and soil samples from 42 different locations in French Polynesia, and of 16 commercial noni juices. Median concentrations of metals in noni fruit, leaf and fruit juice appeared in a normal range compared to other fruits, however, the variance between different locations was considerable. Noni fruits from lime soil were poorer compared to volcanic soil in most metals. Self-prepared noni juices did generally not serve for more then 10% of the daily requirement of trace elements and minerals per 100 ml. The metal concentration in noni fruit puree was higher compared to clear juice and reached 10% and 34% of the daily requirement in 100 ml for manganese and chromium respectively. The concentrations of toxic metals (As, Cd, Pb) were below 2% of the maximum permitted levels (MPL) in all of these juices. For one of the commercial noni juices the MPL for lead was exceeded (170%) and some others were close to it. Most metals showed a good correlation regarding the concentration in noni fruit versus leaf, but not for soil versus fruit or juice. The concentration of magnesium, manganese, zinc and germanium in the commercial juices was highly correlated to the potassium concentration, indicating that these elements are useful to detect a dilution of noni juices.
Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions in Depressive Patients—A Randomized Control Study  [PDF]
Reinhard Pietrowsky, Johannes Mikutta
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312158
Abstract: Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive patients for three weeks without any other concomitant psychotherapy. Seventeen depressive patients were randomly assigned to either the PP group or the control group. Patients in the PP group wrote down the best possible self for one week and then three good things for another two weeks. Patients in the control group wrote down images of the future of mankind for one week and early memories for two weeks. Prior to the intervention and again after it had finished, depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, optimism, and resilience were assessed. While in both groups of patients well-being and resilience increased and depressive symptoms declined, the decline of depressive symptoms and the increase of positive affect and resilience were more pronounced in the PP group. The results support the notion that even a short intervention using PP alone alleviates depressive symptoms and increases well-being. Although the effects were of marginal significance, this may be attributed to the relatively small sample size. Likewise, the use of an Intent-to-Treat analysis may have affected the PP group more than the control group, indicating an underestimation of the potency of PP in the present study.
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