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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1468 matches for " Johanna Haiko "
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The Role of the Bacterial Flagellum in Adhesion and Virulence
Johanna Haiko,Benita Westerlund-Wikstr?m
Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/biology2041242
Abstract: The bacterial flagellum is a complex apparatus assembled of more than 20 different proteins. The flagellar basal body traverses the cell wall, whereas the curved hook connects the basal body to the whip-like flagellar filament that protrudes several μm from the bacterial cell. The flagellum has traditionally been regarded only as a motility organelle, but more recently it has become evident that flagella have a number of other biological functions. The major subunit, flagellin or FliC, of the flagellum plays a well-documented role in innate immunity and as a dominant antigen of the adaptive immune response. Importantly, flagella have also been reported to function as adhesins. Whole flagella have been indicated as significant in bacterial adhesion to and invasion into host cells. In various pathogens, e.g., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium difficile, flagellin and/or the distally located flagellar cap protein have been reported to function as adhesins. Recently, FliC of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli was shown to be involved in cellular invasion via lipid rafts. Here, we examine the latest or most important findings regarding flagellar adhesive and invasive properties, especially focusing on the flagellum as a potential virulence factor.
Molecular adaptation of a plant-bacterium outer membrane protease towards plague virulence factor Pla
Johanna Haiko, Liisa Laakkonen, Benita Westerlund-Wikstr?m, Timo K Korhonen
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-43
Abstract: Pla and Epo expressed in Escherichia coli are both functional endopeptidases and cleave human serine protease inhibitors, but Epo failed to activate plasminogen and to mediate invasion into a human endothelial-like cell line. Swapping of ten amino acid residues at two surface loops of Pla and Epo introduced plasminogen activation capacity in Epo and inactivated the function in Pla. We also compared the structure of Pla and the modeled structure of Epo to analyze the structural variations that could rationalize the different proteolytic activities. Epo-expressing bacteria managed to invade human cells only after all extramembranous residues that differ between Pla and Epo and the first transmembrane β-strand had been changed.We describe molecular adaptation of a protease from an environmental setting towards a virulence factor detrimental for humans. Our results stress the evolvability of bacterial β-barrel surface structures and the environment as a source of progenitor virulence molecules of human pathogens.Analyses of genomic sequences of bacterial pathogens have given an unprecedented view into their biology and evolutionary processes [1,2]. A conclusion from these studies is that highly similar genes, many of which are associated with bacterial virulence, are found across great phylogenetic distances and in different genetic elements, which is indicative of horizontal gene transfer. These families of virulence factors - including toxins, transport systems, adhesins, and antibiotic resistance factors - have evolved by adaptive radiation of a functional progenitor molecule to and within other strains and species to support survival in differing ecological niches [2]. The adaptation, or "evolutionary fine-tuning" of virulence factors that results in increased fitness, can involve modification of catalytic efficiency or substrate specificity of an enzyme, or alteration of bacterial interactions with target cells [2]. The mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer and th
Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells Promotes an Immunosuppressive Phenotype in Lactobacillus casei
Minna Tiittanen, Joni Keto, Johanna Haiko, Jaana M?tt?, Jukka Partanen, Kaarina L?hteenm?ki
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078420
Abstract: Maintenance of the immunological tolerance and homeostasis in the gut is associated with the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We here report that cultivation of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 in the presence of human intestinal epithelial cells promotes functional changes in bacteria. In particular, the interaction enhanced the immunosuppressive phenotype of L. casei as demonstrated by the ability of L. casei to generate functional regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results indicate microbe-host cross-talk that changes features of microbes, and suggest that in vitro simulation of epithelial cell interaction can reveal functional properties of gut microbes more accurately than conventional cultivation.
Prospective Epidemiological Observations on the Course of the Disease in Fibromyalgia Patients
Vera N?ller, Haiko Sprott
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-2-4
Abstract: 48 patients diagnosed with FM, according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, took part in the study. At baseline, and on average two years later, the patients underwent clinical investigation (dolorimetry, laboratory diagnostics, medical history taking) and completed the Fibromyalgia questionnaire (Dettmer and Chrostek [1]).27/48 (56%) patients participated in the two-year follow-up. In general, the patients showed no improvement in their symptoms over the observation period, regardless of the type of therapy they had received. General satisfaction with quality of life improved, as did satisfaction regarding health status and the family situation, although the degree of pain experienced remain unchanged. In comparison with the initial examination, there was no change in either work-capacity or disability-pension status.The FM patients showed no improvement in pain, despite the many various treatments received over the two-year period. The increase in general satisfaction over the observation period was believed to be the result of patient instruction and education about the disease. To what extent a population of patients with FM would show similar outcomes if they did not receive any instruction/education about their disorder, cannot be ascertained from the present study; and, indeed, the undertaking of a study to investigate this would be ethically questionable. As present, no conclusions can be made regarding the influence of therapy on the primary and secondary costs associated with FM.Fibromyalgia (FM), or FM syndrome, is a non-articular rheumatic disease with a prevalence of 1–3% [2-4]. The clinical symptoms include distinctive pain throughout the whole body. Females are more often affected than males [5]. The mean age at disease onset is approximately 42 years and the mean disease duration, 10–12 years [5]. The socio-economic problems associated with the chronic disorder can be considerable, for both the patient and society alike. The pers
Perspectives for Wearable Electronics in Healthcare and Childcare  [PDF]
Johanna Virkki, Pasi Raumonen
E-Health Telecommunication Systems and Networks (ETSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/etsn.2013.23008
Abstract: This paper starts with a literature survey that introduces possibilities of wearable electronics (WE) in different healthcare and childcare applications. Next, 24 personal interviews and an Internet forum survey were conducted in Finland about the use of WE in applications mentioned above. According to the results, most of the people feel positive about clothes used for wireless identification purposes in healthcare and childcare, but when more information about the person is added that can be wirelessly read, the feelings become more negative. Several important points to consider before implementation of WE for healthcare and childcare environments were brought up.
Process Adaption and Modifications of a Nutrient Removing Wastewater Treatment Plant in Sri Lanka Operated at Low Loading Conditions  [PDF]
Johanna Berg, Stig Morling
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.45038

The Sri Lankan national water authority, that is The National Water Supply and Drainage Board (NWS&DB) has taken a new wastewater treatment plant into operation at Ja Ela, North of Colombo. The plant has been in operation since September 2011. In April 2012, it was concluded how a test of the aeration efficiency and a performance test should be carried out. The tests have been based on the actual loading of the plant and the analysis results from the daily process control. The evaluation of the aeration efficiency is not reported in this paper. The paper presents the overall performance of the water treatment part of the plant during start-up conditions, from fall 2011 through the first five months of 2012. The results from the operation are found in Table 1. An important circumstance at the plant is the current very low loading in comparison with the design load. This fact has resulted in an introduction of an intermittent mode of the aeration (nitrification) reactor. Based on operation figures, during more than a month (May 2012), it has been possible to give a realistic assessment of the overall performance. The most striking results are summarized as follows: 1) The intermittent operation has enabled an energy efficient operation of the plant. By the introduction of the intermittent aeration, the energy consumption has been reduced by around 75%, compared with the continuous operation mode; 2) The plant performance during the intermittent operation has been improved with respect to virtually all important pollu

Personal Perspectives: Individual Privacy in the IOT  [PDF]
Johanna Virkki, Liquan Chen
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2013.32003

The Internet of Things (IOT) is the extension of the Internet to the next level, i.e., bringing the Internet to the real physical world of things. In this research, 22 people working with different aspects of IOT development were interviewed in Finland and in China, in order to investigate their thoughts and personal opinions on the IOT and the individual privacy in the IOT. This paper presents the background of the IOT, interviews and collected answers, as well as highlights of collected free comments.

Privacy of Wearable Electronics in the Healthcare and Childcare Sectors: A Survey of Personal Perspectives from Finland and the United Kingdom  [PDF]
Johanna Virkki, Rebecca Aggarwal
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2014.52005

The innovative development of Wearable Electronics (WE) is creating exciting opportunities for application across many industries. Two sectors with high potential are healthcare and childcare. However, it is in these two sectors where the challenges of privacy are presumed to be of the highest. In order to ascertain the personal views of people about potential privacy problems in WE application in these two sectors, interviews with questionnaires were conducted in two different countries: Finland and the United Kingdom (UK). The results indicated that the majority of people in both countries are positive about the use of WE in healthcare and childcare environments. However, when more information is added to be read wirelessly, the attitudes become more negative. In general, the application of WE is more favorable in the UK and the reason as to the difference will make for interesting further research. Several interesting viewpoints and concerns were presented in the interviews. It can be concluded that the implementation of WE in these two sectors will require the collaboration of work on several areas and the development of versatile user studies.

ANCA-Associated Vasculitides—An Update  [PDF]
Johanna Kegel, Torsten Kirsch
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.614209
Abstract: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are characterized by destruction of small vessels, granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. This review describes the clinical diagnosis and therapy as well as the patho-physiology of ANCA-associated vasculitides with a specific focus on the interplay of ANCAs with activated neutrophils and the deleterious pathophysiological consequences of neutrophil-endothelium interaction.
Comparison of the Specialist Medical Training in Internal Medicine between Germany, Austria and Switzerland: An Overview  [PDF]
Johanna Braun, Ursula Gresser
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.811118
Abstract: Specialists for internal medicine are very important group of the medical profession. Although they make up the largest group of specialized physicians, there is a shortage of physicians, and in particular of internists in Germany, Austria and under some aspects in Switzerland. Germany, Austria and Switzerland show also an intensive transfer of physicians. It is therefore of interest to investigate if the tern “internist” in the three countries under consideration is based on the same or equivalent education, in particular regarding the quality standards. Exchange date between the three countries, the organisation of the medical profession, the access requirements to the specialist medical training, the structure of the specialist’s training as well as the requirements for keeping the specialist’s name have been compared. The main differences are the access requirements and the linkage of the qualification to the independent exercise of the medical profession. Also regarding the performance catalogues, the Swiss education follows a different approach as in Germany and Austria.
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