Abstract:
We show that quantum correlations induced by electron-electron interactions in the presence of random impurity scattering can play an important role in the thermal stabilization of amorphous Hume-Rothery systems: When there is strong backscattering off local, concentrical ion clusters, the static electron density response $\chi (0,q)$ acquires a powerlaw divergence at $q=2k_F$ even at elevated temperature. This leads to an enhancement as well as to a systematical phase shift of the Friedel oscillations, both consistent with experiments. The possible importance of this effect in icosahedral quasicrystals is discussed.

Abstract:
The exponentially strong damping of the conventional Friedel oscillations at elevated temperature T as well as due to disorder poses a severe problem to the Hume-Rothery (HR) stabilization mechanism of amorphous and quasicrystalline alloys. We show that quantum correlations induced by electron-electron interactions in the presence of random impurity scattering can play an important role in stabilizing these systems: When there is strong backscattering off local ion clusters, the static electron density response chi(0,q) acquires a powerlaw divergence at q=2k_F even at T>0. This Fermi surface singularity leads to an enhancement as well as to a systematical phase shift of the Friedel oscillations, consistent with experiments. In addition, the spatial decay exponent is reduced, strongly supporting the validity of a HR-like mechanism at T>0. This effect may be accounted for in pseudopotential calculations through the local field factor.

Abstract:
A self-consistent theory of the frequency dependent diffusion coefficient for the Anderson localization problem is presented within the tight-binding model of non-interacting electrons on a lattice with randomly distributed on-site energy levels. The theory uses a diagrammatic expansion in terms of (extended) Bloch states and is found to be equivalent to the expansion in terms of (localized) Wannier states which was derived earlier by Kroha, Kopp and W\"olfle. No adjustable parameters enter the theory. The localization length is calculated in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions as well as the frequency dependent conductivity and the phase diagram of localization in 3 dimensions for various types of disorder distributions. The validity of a universal scaling function of the length dependent conductance derived from this theory is discussed in the strong coupling region. Quantitative agreement with results from numerical diagonalization of finite systems demonstrates that the self-consistent treatment of cooperon contributions is sufficient to explain the phase diagram of localization and suggests that the system may be well described by a one-parameter scaling theory in certain regions of the phase diagram, if one is not too close to the transition point.

Abstract:
In diffusive Cu and Au quantum wires at finite transport voltage $U$ the non-equilibrium distribution function $f(E,U)$ exhibits scaling behavior, $f(E,U)=f(E/eU)$, indicating anomalous energy relaxation processes in these wires. We show that in nonequilibrium the Kondo effect, generated either by magnetic impurities (single-channel Kondo effect) or possibly by non-magnetic, degenerate two-level systems (two-channel Kondo effect), produces such scaling behavior as a consequence of a Korringa-like (pseudo)spin relaxation rate $\propto U$ and of damped powerlaw behavior of the impurity spectral density as a remnant of the Kondo strong coupling regime at low temperature but high bias. The theoretical, scaled distribution functions coincide quantitatively with the experimental results, the impurity concentration being the only adjustable parameter. This provides strong evidence for the presence of Kondo defects, either single- or two-channel, in the experimental systems. The relevance of these results for the problem of dephasing in mesoscopic wires is discussed briefly.

Abstract:
In recent experiments the non-equilibrium distribution function $f(E,U)$ in diffusive Cu and Au quantum wires at a transport voltage $U$ shows scaling behavior, $f(E,U)=f(E/eU)$, indicating a non-Fermi liquid interaction with {\it non-vanishing} T=0 scattering rate. The two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect, possibly produced by degenerate two-level systems, is known to exhibit such behavior. Generalizing the auxiliary boson method to non-equilibrium, we calculate $f(E,U)$ in the presence of 2CK impurities. We show that the 2CK equations reproduce the scaling form $f(E/eU)$. For all measured samples the theoretical, scaled distribution functions coincide quantitatively with the experimental results, the impurity concentration being the only adjustable parameter. This provides a microscopic explanation for the experiments and, considering that no other mechanism producing the scaling form is known to date, lends strong evidence for the presence of degenerate two-level defects in these systems. The relevance of these results for the problem of dephasing in mesoscopic wires is discussed.

Abstract:
The question of Fermi liquid vs. non-Fermi liquid behavior induced by strong correlations is one of the prominent problems in metallic local moment systems. As standard models for such systems, the SU(N) x SU(M) Anderson impurity models exhibit both Fermi liquid and non-Fermi liquid behavior, depending on their symmetry. Using an auxiliary boson method, we present a generally applicable scheme to select the relevant contributions in the low frequency regime, while preserving the local gauge symmetry of the model. It amounts to a conserving T-matrix approximation (CTMA) including coherent spin flip as well as charge fluctuation processes, which are found to dominate in the Kondo and in the mixed valence regime, respectively. The infrared threshold exponents of the auxiliary particle spectral functions are indicators for the presence of Fermi or non-Fermi liquid behavior in any given model with strong on-site repulsion. We show that, in contrast to earlier auxiliary boson theories, the CTMA recovers the correct exponents in both cases, indicating that it correctly describes both the Fermi and the non-Fermi regimes of the Anderson model.

Abstract:
We present a general framework to describe the simultaneous para-to-ferromagnetic and semiconductor-to-metal transition in electron-doped EuO. The theory correctly describes detailed experimental features of the conductivity and of the magnetization, in particular the doping dependence of the Curie temperature. The existence of correlation-induced local moments on the impurity sites is essential for this description.

Abstract:
We perform numerical renormalization group (NRG) as well as analytical calculations for the two-channel Kondo model to obtain the dependence of the Kondo temperature $T_K$ on the dimensionless (bare) spin exchange coupling $g$ over the complete parameter range from $g\ll 1$ to $g\gg 1$. We show that there exists a duality between the regimes of small and large coupling. It is unique for the two-channel model and enables a mapping between the strong and the weak coupling cases via the identification $g\leftrightarrow 3/(2g)$, implying an exponential dependence of $T_K$ on $1/g$ and $g$, respectively, in the two regimes. This agrees quantitatively with our NRG calculations where we extract $T_K(g)$ over the complete parameter range and obtain a non-monotonous $T_K(g)$ dependence, strongly peaked at the 2CK fixed point coupling $g^*$. These results may be relevant for resolving the long-standing puzzle within the 2CK interpretation of certain random defect systems, why no broad distribution of $T_K$ is observed in those systems.

Abstract:
A three-level system with partially broken SU(3) symmetry immersed in a metal, comprised of a unique non-interacting ground state and two-fold degenerate excited states, exhibits a stable two-channel Kondo fixed point within a wide range of parameters, as has been shown in previous work. Such systems can, for instance, be realized by protons dissolved in a metal and bound in the interstitial space of the host lattice, where the degeneracy of excited rotational states is guaranteed by the space inversion symmetry of the lattice. We analyze the robustness of the 2CK fixed point with respect to a level splitting of the excited states and discuss how this may explain the behavior of the well-known dI/dV spectra measured by Ralph and Buhrman on ultrasmall quantum point contacts in a magnetic field.

Abstract:
We present a comparative, theoretical study of the doping dependence of the critical temperature $T_C$ of the ferromagnetic insulator-metal transition in Gd-doped and O-deficient EuO, respectively. The strong $T_C$ enhancement in Eu$_{1-x}$Gd$_x$O is due to Kondo-like spin fluctuations on the Gd sites, which are absent in EuO$_{1-x}$. Moreover, we find that the $T_C$ saturation in Eu$_{1-x}$Gd$_x$O for large $x$ is due to a reduced activation of dopant electrons into the conduction band, in agreement with experiments, rather than antiferromagnetic long-range contributions of the RKKY interaction. The results shed light on possibilities for further increasing $T_C$.