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Lactobacillus reuteri Maintains a Functional Mucosal Barrier during DSS Treatment Despite Mucus Layer Dysfunction
Johan Dicksved, Olof Schreiber, Ben Willing, Joel Petersson, Sara Rang, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm, Stefan Roos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046399
Abstract: Treatment with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to prevent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. This is partly due to reduced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions, however, the mechanism behind this protective effect is still unknown. In the present study a combination of culture dependent and molecular based T-RFLP profiling was used to investigate the influence of L. reuteri on the colonic mucosal barrier of DSS treated rats. It was first demonstrated that the two colonic mucus layers of control animals had different bacterial community composition and that fewer bacteria resided in the firmly adherent layer. During DSS induced colitis, the number of bacteria in the inner firmly adherent mucus layer increased and bacterial composition of the two layers no longer differed. In addition, induction of colitis dramatically altered the microbial composition in both firmly and loosely adherent mucus layers. Despite protecting against colitis, treatment with L. reuteri did not improve the integrity of the mucus layer or prevent distortion of the mucus microbiota caused by DSS. However, L. reuteri decreased the bacterial translocation from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes during DSS treatment, which might be an important part of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri ameliorates DSS induced colitis.
454 Pyrosequencing Analysis on Faecal Samples from a Randomized DBPC Trial of Colicky Infants Treated with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938
Stefan Roos, Johan Dicksved, Valentina Tarasco, Emanuela Locatelli, Fulvio Ricceri, Ulf Grandin, Francesco Savino
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056710
Abstract: Objective To analyze the global microbial composition, using large-scale DNA sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes, in faecal samples from colicky infants given L. reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo. Methods Twenty-nine colicky infants (age 10–60 days) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either Lactobacillus reuteri (108 cfu) or a placebo once daily for 21 days. Responders were defined as subjects with a decrease of 50% in daily crying time at day 21 compared with the starting point. The microbiota of faecal samples from day 1 and 21 were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. The primers: Bakt_341F and Bakt_805R, complemented with 454 adapters and sample specific barcodes were used for PCR amplification of the 16 S rRNA genes. The structure of the data was explored by using permutational multivariate analysis of variance and effects of different variables were visualized with ordination analysis. Results The infants’ faecal microbiota were composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the four main phyla. The composition of the microbiota in infants with colic had very high inter-individual variability with Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios varying from 4000 to 0.025. On an individual basis, the microbiota was, however, relatively stable over time. Treatment with L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not change the global composition of the microbiota, but when comparing responders with non-responders the group responders had an increased relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides at day 21 compared with day 0. Furthermore, the phyla composition of the infants at day 21 could be divided into three enterotype groups, dominated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, respectively. Conclusion L. reuteri DSM 17938 did not affect the global composition of the microbiota. However, the increase of Bacteroidetes in the responder infants indicated that a decrease in colicky symptoms was linked to changes of the microbiota. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893711
Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease
Janet Jansson, Ben Willing, Marianna Lucio, Ages Fekete, Johan Dicksved, Jonas Halfvarson, Curt Tysk, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006386
Abstract: The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.
Lactobacilli Regulate Staphylococcus aureus 161:2-Induced Pro-Inflammatory T-Cell Responses In Vitro
Yeneneh Haileselassie, Maria A. Johansson, Christine L. Zimmer, Sophia Bj?rkander, Dagbjort H. Petursdottir, Johan Dicksved, Mikael Petersson, Jan-Olov Persson, Carmen Fernandez, Stefan Roos, Ulrika Holmlund, Eva Sverremark-Ekstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077893
Abstract: There seems to be a correlation between early gut microbiota composition and postnatal immune development. Alteration in the microbial composition early in life has been associated with immune mediated diseases, such as autoimmunity and allergy. We have previously observed associations between the presence of lactobacilli and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus in the early-life gut microbiota, cytokine responses and allergy development in children. Consistent with the objective to understand how bacteria modulate the cytokine response of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines and immune cells, we exposed IEC lines (HT29, SW480) to UV-killed bacteria and/or culture supernatants (-sn) from seven Lactobacillus strains and three S. aureus strains, while peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated by bacteria-sn or with bacteria conditioned IEC-sn. Although the overall IEC response to bacterial exposure was characterized by limited sets of cytokine and chemokine production, S. aureus 161:2-sn induced an inflammatory response in the IEC, characterized by CXCL1/GROα and CXCL8/IL-8 production, partly in a MyD88-dependent manner. UV-killed bacteria did not induce a response in the IEC line, and a combination of both UV-killed bacteria and the bacteria-sn had no additive effect to that of the supernatant alone. In PBMC, most of the Lactobacillus-sn and S. aureus-sn strains were able to induce a wide array of cytokines, but only S. aureus-sn induced the T-cell associated cytokines IL-2, IL-17 and IFN-γ, independently of IEC-produced factors, and induced up regulation of CTLA-4 expression and IL-10 production by T-regulatory cells. Notably, S. aureus-sn-induced T-cell production of IFN- γ and IL-17 was down regulated by the simultaneous presence of any of the different Lactobacillus strains, while the IEC CXCL8/IL-8 response was unaltered. Thus these studies present a possible role for lactobacilli in induction of immune cell regulation, although the mechanisms need to be further elucidated.
Properties of Lorenz Curves for Transformed Income Distributions  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25091
Abstract: Redistributions of income can be considered as variable transformations of the initial income variable. The transformation is usually assumed to be positive, monotone-increasing and continuous, but discontinuous transformations have also been discussed recently. If the transformation is a tax or a transfer policy, the transformed variable is either the post-tax or the post-transfer income. A central problem has been the Lorenz dominance between the initial and the transformed income. This study considers analyses of other properties of the transformed Lorenz curves, especially its limits. We take in account mainly two cases (a) the transformed variable Lorenz dominates the initial one and (b) the initial Lorenz dominates the transformed one. For applications, the first case is more important than the second. The limits obtained are not accurate for a specific transformation, but do hold generally for all distributions and a broad class of transformations so that, if one pursues general conditions the inequalities obtained cannot be improved.
Properties of Non-Differentiable Tax Policies  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.33022

In this study, we reconsider the effect of variable transformations on the redistribution of income. We assume that the density function is continuous. If the theorems should hold for all income distributions, the conditions earlier given are both necessary and sufficient. Different conditions are compared. One main result is that continuity is a necessary condition if one demands that the income inequality should remain or be reduced. In our previous studies, of tax policies the assumption was that the transformations were differentiable and satisfy a derivative condition. In this study, we show that it is possible to reduce this assumption to a continuity condition.

Educational Activities at the Sami Folk High School 1942-1982  [PDF]
Johan Hansson
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.69090
Abstract: The Sami folk high school started in 1942 as a school for young Sami that needed more education that the Swedish folk school or nomadic school offered its pupils. The school was managed by the Swedish mission society, an organization within the Swedish church. The school was successful but struggled with financial problems. The result was that a foundation with Sami representation managed the school instead after 1972. The following year was even more successful. The number of students increased, and the management could offer more courses and their curriculum had more Sami elements than earlier. However, there was also some conflicts during the 1970s. The largest one being the language boycott addressing the issue of Sami languages at the Sami folk high school as a subject in the school, and as an important part of the Sami culture and identity. This article describes the education of the Sami folk high school’s first 40 years with the help of a model for Sami pedagogy developed by Keskitalo and Määttä. The model shows that the education is to a large extent affected by outer factors—self determination, as well as inner factors—language issues and the curriculum.
Transfer Policies with Discontinuous Lorenz Curves  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.61003

In earlier papers, classes of transfer policies have been studied and maximal and minimal Lorenz curves \"\"??obtained. In addition, there are policies belonging to the class with given Gini indices or passing through given points in the \"\"?plane. In general, a transformation \"\"?describing a realistic transfer policy has to be continuous. In this paper the results are generalized and the class of transfer policies?\"\"?is modified so that the members may be discontinuous. If there is an optimal policy which Lorenz dominates all policies in the class, it must be continuous. The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a given differentiable Lorenz curve \"\"?can be generated by a member of a given class of transfer policies are obtained. These conditions are equivalent to the condition that the transformed variable \"\"?stochastically dominates the initial variable X. The theory presented is obviously applicable in connection with other income redistributive studies such that the discontinuity can be assumed. If the problem is reductions in taxation, then the reduction for a taxpayer can be considered as a new benefit. The class of transfer policies can also be used for comparisons between different transfer-raising situations.

Transformations and Lorenz Curves: Sufficient and Necessary Conditions  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63050
Abstract: In this study, we reconsider the effect of variable transformations on income inequality. Under the assumption that the theorems should hold for all income distributions, earlier given sufficient conditions are also necessary. Different versions of the conditions are compared. Furthermore, one can prove that the assumption of continuity of the transformations can be implicitly included in the necessary and sufficient conditions, and hence, it can be dropped from the assumptions. The effects of two transformations on income inequality are compared.
Geodetic Datum Transformation Parameters towards WGS84 Applicable to the 1/50k Topographical Map (1981) of Burundi  [PDF]
Johan Lavreau
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.75048
Abstract: The knowledge of the geodetic reference datum of maps or data is required for their use in a GIS. Many older maps are lacking this information, making their use cumbersome. The availability of an aerial coverage at high resolution of Burundi and digital elevation model, based on a novel geodetic network, all calculated on the WGS84 datum, allows to calculate the datum applicable to older maps, for instance the regular 1/50k map of the country. The method, based on the difference in geocentric coordinates between points common to the two systems, yields: Δx = -156.71 ± 10.2 m, .Δy = -3.26 ± 13.2 m, .Δz = -290.77 ± 21.06 m, well in keeping with older values proposed by the NGA.
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