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Fidgetin-Like1 Is a Strong Candidate for a Dynamic Impairment of Male Meiosis Leading to Reduced Testis Weight in Mice
David L'H?te,Magalie Vatin,Jana Auer,Johan Castille,Bruno Passet,Xavier Montagutelli,Catherine Serres,Daniel Vaiman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027582
Abstract: In a previous work, using an interspecific recombinant congenic mouse model, we reported a genomic region of 23 Mb on mouse chromosome 11 implicated in testis weight decrease and moderate teratozoospermia (~20–30%), a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) called Ltw1. The objective of the present study is to identify the gene underlying this phenotype.
Overexpression of miR-30b in the Developing Mouse Mammary Gland Causes a Lactation Defect and Delays Involution
Sandrine Le Guillou, Nezha Sdassi, Johann Laubier, Bruno Passet, Marthe Vilotte, Johan Castille, Denis Lalo?, Jacqueline Polyte, Stéphan Bouet, Florence Jaffrézic, Edmond-Paul Cribiu, Jean-Luc Vilotte, Fabienne Le Provost
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045727
Abstract: Background MicroRNA (miRNA) are negative regulators of gene expression, capable of exerting pronounced influences upon the translation and stability of mRNA. They are potential regulators of normal mammary gland development and of the maintenance of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. This study was undertaken to determine the role of miR-30b on the establishment of a functional mouse mammary gland. miR-30b is a member of the miR-30 family, composed of 6 miRNA that are highly conserved in vertebrates. It has been suggested to play a role in the differentiation of several cell types. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of miR-30b was found to be regulated during mammary gland development. Transgenic mice overexpressing miR-30b in mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate its role. During lactation, mammary histological analysis of the transgenic mice showed a reduction in the size of alveolar lumen, a defect of the lipid droplets and a growth defect of pups fed by transgenic females. Moreover some mammary epithelial differentiated structures persisted during involution, suggesting a delay in the process. The genes whose expression was affected by the overexpression of miR-30b were characterized by microarray analysis. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggests that miR-30b is important for the biology of the mammary gland and demonstrates that the deregulation of only one miRNA could affect lactation and involution.
Properties of Lorenz Curves for Transformed Income Distributions  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25091
Abstract: Redistributions of income can be considered as variable transformations of the initial income variable. The transformation is usually assumed to be positive, monotone-increasing and continuous, but discontinuous transformations have also been discussed recently. If the transformation is a tax or a transfer policy, the transformed variable is either the post-tax or the post-transfer income. A central problem has been the Lorenz dominance between the initial and the transformed income. This study considers analyses of other properties of the transformed Lorenz curves, especially its limits. We take in account mainly two cases (a) the transformed variable Lorenz dominates the initial one and (b) the initial Lorenz dominates the transformed one. For applications, the first case is more important than the second. The limits obtained are not accurate for a specific transformation, but do hold generally for all distributions and a broad class of transformations so that, if one pursues general conditions the inequalities obtained cannot be improved.
Properties of Non-Differentiable Tax Policies  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.33022

In this study, we reconsider the effect of variable transformations on the redistribution of income. We assume that the density function is continuous. If the theorems should hold for all income distributions, the conditions earlier given are both necessary and sufficient. Different conditions are compared. One main result is that continuity is a necessary condition if one demands that the income inequality should remain or be reduced. In our previous studies, of tax policies the assumption was that the transformations were differentiable and satisfy a derivative condition. In this study, we show that it is possible to reduce this assumption to a continuity condition.

Educational Activities at the Sami Folk High School 1942-1982  [PDF]
Johan Hansson
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.69090
Abstract: The Sami folk high school started in 1942 as a school for young Sami that needed more education that the Swedish folk school or nomadic school offered its pupils. The school was managed by the Swedish mission society, an organization within the Swedish church. The school was successful but struggled with financial problems. The result was that a foundation with Sami representation managed the school instead after 1972. The following year was even more successful. The number of students increased, and the management could offer more courses and their curriculum had more Sami elements than earlier. However, there was also some conflicts during the 1970s. The largest one being the language boycott addressing the issue of Sami languages at the Sami folk high school as a subject in the school, and as an important part of the Sami culture and identity. This article describes the education of the Sami folk high school’s first 40 years with the help of a model for Sami pedagogy developed by Keskitalo and Määttä. The model shows that the education is to a large extent affected by outer factors—self determination, as well as inner factors—language issues and the curriculum.
Transfer Policies with Discontinuous Lorenz Curves  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.61003

In earlier papers, classes of transfer policies have been studied and maximal and minimal Lorenz curves \"\"??obtained. In addition, there are policies belonging to the class with given Gini indices or passing through given points in the \"\"?plane. In general, a transformation \"\"?describing a realistic transfer policy has to be continuous. In this paper the results are generalized and the class of transfer policies?\"\"?is modified so that the members may be discontinuous. If there is an optimal policy which Lorenz dominates all policies in the class, it must be continuous. The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a given differentiable Lorenz curve \"\"?can be generated by a member of a given class of transfer policies are obtained. These conditions are equivalent to the condition that the transformed variable \"\"?stochastically dominates the initial variable X. The theory presented is obviously applicable in connection with other income redistributive studies such that the discontinuity can be assumed. If the problem is reductions in taxation, then the reduction for a taxpayer can be considered as a new benefit. The class of transfer policies can also be used for comparisons between different transfer-raising situations.

Transformations and Lorenz Curves: Sufficient and Necessary Conditions  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63050
Abstract: In this study, we reconsider the effect of variable transformations on income inequality. Under the assumption that the theorems should hold for all income distributions, earlier given sufficient conditions are also necessary. Different versions of the conditions are compared. Furthermore, one can prove that the assumption of continuity of the transformations can be implicitly included in the necessary and sufficient conditions, and hence, it can be dropped from the assumptions. The effects of two transformations on income inequality are compared.
Geodetic Datum Transformation Parameters towards WGS84 Applicable to the 1/50k Topographical Map (1981) of Burundi  [PDF]
Johan Lavreau
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.75048
Abstract: The knowledge of the geodetic reference datum of maps or data is required for their use in a GIS. Many older maps are lacking this information, making their use cumbersome. The availability of an aerial coverage at high resolution of Burundi and digital elevation model, based on a novel geodetic network, all calculated on the WGS84 datum, allows to calculate the datum applicable to older maps, for instance the regular 1/50k map of the country. The method, based on the difference in geocentric coordinates between points common to the two systems, yields: Δx = -156.71 ± 10.2 m, .Δy = -3.26 ± 13.2 m, .Δz = -290.77 ± 21.06 m, well in keeping with older values proposed by the NGA.
Income Inequality Measures  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.83039
Abstract: Income distributions are commonly unimodal and skew with a heavy right tail. Different skew models, such as the lognormal and the Pareto, have been proposed as suitable descriptions of income distribution and applied in specific empirical situations. More wide-ranging tools have been introduced as measures for general comparisons. In this study, we review the income analysis methods and apply them to specific Lorenz models.
Regression Analyses of Income Inequality Indices  [PDF]
Johan Fellman
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810117
Abstract: Scientists have analysed different methods for numerical estimation of Gini coefficients. Using Lorenz curves, various numerical integration attempts have been made to identify accurate estimates. Central alternative methods have been the trapezium, Simpson and Lagrange rules. They are all special cases of the Newton-Cotes methods. In this study, we approximate the Lorenz curve by polynomial regression models and integrate optimal regression models for numerical estimation of the Gini coefficient. The attempts are checked on theoretical Lorenz curves and on empirical Lorenz curves with known Gini indices. In all cases the proposed methods seem to be a good alternative to earlier methods presented in the literature.
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