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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6194 matches for " Joel Wm. Parker "
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The Spectroscopic Detectability of Argon in the Lunar Atmosphere
Joel Wm. Parker,S. Alan Stern,G. Randall Gladstone,J. Michael Shull
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311758
Abstract: Direct measurements of the abundance of argon in the lunar atmosphere were made in 1973 by instruments placed on the Moon during the Apollo 17 mission, but the total daytime abundance is unknown due to instrument saturation effects; thus, until we are able to return to the Moon for improved direct measurements, we must use remote sensing to establish the daytime abundance. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of the potential for measuring argon in the lunar atmosphere via emission-line or absorption-line observations. We come to the surprising conclusion that the lower limit established by the in situ lunar argon measurements implies that any absorption-line measurement of argon in the lower, dayside lunar atmosphere requires analysis in the optically-thick regime. In light of this result, we present the results of our EUVS sounding rocket observations of the lunar occultation of Spica, which provide a new upper limit on the abundance of argon in the daytime lunar atmosphere. We also re-analyze a recently reported weak detection of lunar atmospheric Ar I 1048 in emission by the ORFEUS satellite, and show that those data are inconsistent with the emission being due to argon over a wide range of temperatures. This result is primarily due to our use of a more complete curve of growth analysis, and improved values for the argon fluorescent emission rates from radiation and solar wind interactions. We find that the detection reported by ORFEUS would imply an argon surface density significantly greater than the total surface density of the lunar atmosphere for argon accommodated to typical daytime surface temperatures (~400 K), and also is inconsistent with a high-density transient event. We conclude that the reported argon detection is untenable.
Ultraviolet and Optical Observations of OB Associations and Field Stars in the Southwest Region of the Large Magellanic Cloud
Joel Wm. Parker,Dennis Zaritsky,Theodore P. Stecher,Jason Harris,Phil Massey
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318765
Abstract: Using photometry from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) and photometry and spectroscopy from three ground-based optical datasets we have analyzed the stellar content of OB associations and field areas in and around the regions N 79, N 81, N 83, and N 94 in the LMC. We compare data for the OB association Lucke-Hodge 2 (LH 2) to determine how strongly the initial mass function (IMF) may depend on different photometric reductions and calibrations. We also correct for the background contribution of field stars, showing the importance of correcting for field star contamination in determinations of the IMF of star formation regions. It is possible that even in the case of an universal IMF, the variability of the density of background stars could be the dominant factor creating the differences between calculated IMFs for OB associations. We have also combined the UIT data with the Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey to study the distribution of the candidate O-type stars in the field. We find a significant fraction, roughly half, of the candidate O-type stars are found in field regions, far from any obvious OB associations. These stars are greater than 2 arcmin (30 pc) from the boundaries of existing OB associations in the region, which is a distance greater than most O-type stars with typical dispersion velocities will travel in their lifetimes. The origin of these massive field stars (either as runaways, members of low-density star-forming regions, or examples of isolated massive star formation) will have to be determined by further observations and analysis.
On the Detection of Two New Transneptunian Binaries from the CFEPS Kuiper Belt Survey
H. -W. Lin,J. J. Kavelaars,W. -H. Ip,B. J. Gladman,J. M. Petit,R. L. Jones,Joel Wm. Parker
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1086/656358
Abstract: We report here the discovery of an new near-equal mass Trans-Neptunian Binaries (TNBs) L5c02 and the and the putative detection of a second TNB (L4k12) among the year two and three detections of the Canada-France-Eclipic Plane Survey (CFEPS). These new binaries (internal designation L4k12 and L5c02) have moderate separations of 0.4" and 0.6" respectively. The follow-up observation confirmed the binarity of L5c02, but L4k12 are still lack of more followup observations. L4k12 has a heliocentric orbital inclination of ~ 35?degree, marking this system as having the highest heliocentric orbital inclination among known near-equal mass binaries. Both systems are members of the classical main Kuiper belt population. Based on the sample of objects searched we determine that the fraction of near-equal mass wide binaries with separations > 0.4" is 1.5% to 20% in the cold main classical Kuiper belt and, if our detection the binarity L4k12 holds, 3% to 43% in the hot main classical objects are binary. In this manuscript we describe our detection process, the sample of objects surveyed, our confirmation observations.
Analysis of the First Disk-Resolved Images of Ceres from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope
Joel Wm. Parker,S. Alan Stern,Peter C. Thomas,Michel C. Festou,William J. Merline,Elliot F. Young,Richard P. Binzel,Larry A. Lebofsky
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338093
Abstract: We present HST Faint Object Camera observations of the asteroid 1 Ceres at near-, mid-, and far-UV wavelengths (lambda = 3636, 2795, and 1621 A, respectively) obtained on 1995 June 25. The disk of Ceres is well-resolved for the first time, at a scale of ~50km. We report the detection of a large, ~250km diameter surface feature for which we propose the name ``Piazzi''; however it is presently uncertain if this feature is due to a crater, albedo variegation, or other effect. From limb fits to the images, we obtain semi-major and semi-minor axes of R_1=484.8+/-5.1km and R_2=466.4+/-5.9km, respectively, for the illumination-corrected projected ellipsoid. Although albedo features are seen, they do not allow for a definitive determination of the rotation or pole positions of Ceres, particularly because of the sparse sampling (two epochs) of the 9 hour rotation period. From full-disk integrated albedo measurements, we find that Ceres has a red spectral slope from the mid- to near-UV, and a significant blue slope shortward of the mid-UV. In spite of the presence of Piazzi, we detect no significant global differences in the integrated albedo as a function of rotational phase for the two epochs of data we obtained. From Minnaert surface fits to the near- and mid-UV images, we find an unusually large Minnaert parameter of k~0.9, suggesting a more Lambertian than lunar-like surface.
HST-WFPC2 Observations of the Star Clusters in the Giant HII Regions of M33
Myung Gyoon Lee,Hong Soo Park,Sang Chul Kim,William H. Waller,Joel Wm. Parker,Eliot M. Malumuth,Paul W. Hodge
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present a photometric study of the stars in ionizing star clusters embedded in several giant HII regions of M33 (CC93, IC 142, NGC 595, MA2, NGC 604 and NGC 588). Our photometry are based on the HST-WFPC2 images of these clusters. Color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of these clusters are obtained and are used for estimating the reddenings and ages of the clusters. The luminosity functions (LFs) and initial mass functions (IMFs) of the massive stars in these clusters are also derived. The slopes of the IMFs range from Gamma = -0.5 to -2.1. It is found interestingly that the IMFs get steeper with increasing galactocentric distance and with decreasing [O/H] abundance.
Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) Observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud
Robert H. Cornett,Michael R. Greason,Jesse K. Hill,Joel Wm. Parker,William H. Waller,Ralph C. Bohlin,Kwang-Peng Cheng,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,Theodore P. Stecher
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: A mosaic of four UIT far-UV (FUV; 1620A) images, which covers most of the SMC bar, is presented, with derived stellar and HII region photometry. The UV morphology of the Bar shows that recent star formation there has left striking features including: a) four concentrations of UV-bright stars spread from northeast to southwest at nearly equal (~30 arcmin=0.5 kpc) spacings; b) a well-defined 8-arcmin ring of UV-bright stars surrounded by a larger H-alpha ring, suggesting sequential star formation. FUV PSF photometry is obtained for 11,306 stars, and a FUV luminosity function is derived. A (FUV-V,V) color-magnitude diagram for 195 identified supergiants, with derived extinctions; the bluest (least-reddened) stars of each spectral type have FUV-V colors consistent with models. FUV photometry is obtained for 42 H-alpha-selected HII regions, both for the stars and for the total emission within the apertures defined by Kennicutt & Hodge. The flux-weighted average ratio of total to stellar FUV flux is 2.15; the stellar FUV luminosity function indicates that most of the excess total flux is due to scattered FUV radiation, rather than faint stars. Both stellar and total emission are well correlated with H-alpha fluxes, and yield FUV/H-alpha ratios that are consistent with models of single-burst clusters with SMC metallicity, ages from 1-5 Myr, and moderate (E(B-V)=0.0-0.1 mag) internal SMC extinction.
Rosetta-Alice Observations of Exospheric Hydrogen and Oxygen on Mars
Paul D. Feldman,Andrew J. Steffl,Joel Wm. Parker,Michael F. A'Hearn,Jean-Loup Bertaux,S. Alan Stern,Harold A. Weaver,David C. Slater,Maarten Versteeg,Henry B. Throop,Nathaniel J. Cunningham,Lori M. Feaga
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.013
Abstract: The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, en route to a 2014 encounter with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, made a gravity assist swing-by of Mars on 25 February 2007, closest approach being at 01:54UT. The Alice instrument on board Rosetta, a lightweight far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph optimized for in situ cometary spectroscopy in the 750-2000 A spectral band, was used to study the daytime Mars upper atmosphere including emissions from exospheric hydrogen and oxygen. Offset pointing, obtained five hours before closest approach, enabled us to detect and map the HI Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta emissions from exospheric hydrogen out beyond 30,000 km from the planet's center. These data are fit with a Chamberlain exospheric model from which we derive the hydrogen density at the 200 km exobase and the H escape flux. The results are comparable to those found from the the Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment on the Mariner 6 and 7 fly-bys of Mars in 1969. Atomic oxygen emission at 1304 A is detected at altitudes of 400 to 1000 km above the limb during limb scans shortly after closest approach. However, the derived oxygen scale height is not consistent with recent models of oxygen escape based on the production of suprathermal oxygen atoms by the dissociative recombination of O2+.
Measurements of the Near-Nucleus Coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alice Far-Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Rosetta
Paul D. Feldman,Michael F. A'Hearn,Jean-Loup Bertaux,Lori M. Feaga,Joel Wm. Parker,Eric Schindhelm,Andrew J. Steffl,S. Alan Stern,Harold A. Weaver,Holger Sierks,Jean-Baptiste Vincent
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201525925
Abstract: Aims. The Alice far-ultraviolet spectrograph onboard Rosetta is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko and to determine their spatial distribution and evolution with time and heliocentric distance. Methods. Following orbit insertion in August 2014, Alice made observations of the inner coma above the limbs of the nucleus of the comet from cometocentric distances varying between 10 and 80 km. Depending on the position and orientation of the slit relative to the nucleus, emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen were initially detected. These emissions are spatially localized close to the nucleus and spatially variable with a strong enhancement above the comet's neck at northern latitudes. Weaker emission from atomic carbon and CO were subsequently detected. Results. Analysis of the relative line intensities suggests photoelectron impact dissociation of H2O vapor as the source of the observed H I and O I emissions. The electrons are produced by photoionization of H2O. The observed C I emissions are also attributed to electron impact dissociation, of CO2, and their relative brightness to H I reflects the variation of CO2 to H2O column abundance in the coma.
Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP
Paul D. Feldman,Dana M. Hurley,Kurt D. Retherford,G. Randall Gladstone,S. Alan Stern,Wayne Pryor,Joel Wm. Parker,David E. Kaufmann,Michael W. Davis,Maarten Versteeg,LAMP team
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2012.09.015
Abstract: We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that likely reflect variations in the solar wind alpha flux. The 5-day passage of the Moon through the Earth's magnetotail results in a factor of two decrease in surface density, which is well explained by model simulations.
The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope: Instrument and Data Characteristics
Theodore P. Stecher,Robert H. Cornett,Michael R. Greason,Wayne B. Landsman,Jesse K. Hill,Robert S. Hill,Ralph C. Bohlin,Peter C. Chen,Nicholas R. Collins,Michael N. Fanelli,Joan I. Hollis,Susan G. Neff,Robert W. O'Connell,Joel D. Offenberg,Ronald A. Parise,Joel Wm. Parker,Morton S. Roberts,Andrew M. Smith,William H. Waller
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/133917
Abstract: The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) was flown as part of the Astro observatory on the Space Shuttle Columbia in December 1990 and again on the Space Shuttle Endeavor in March 1995. Ultraviolet (1200-3300 Angstroms) images of a variety of astronomical objects, with a 40 arcmin field of view and a resolution of about 3 arcsec, were recorded on photographic film. The data recorded during the first flight are available to the astronomical community through the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC); the data recorded during the second flight will soon be available as well. This paper discusses in detail the design, operation, data reduction, and calibration of UIT, providing the user of the data with information for understanding and using the data. It also provides guidelines for analyzing other astronomical imagery made with image intensifiers and photographic film.
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