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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 331946 matches for " Joel S. Schneider "
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Biological Markers of Auditory Gap Detection in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults
Bernhard Ross,Bruce Schneider,Joel S. Snyder,Claude Alain
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010101
Abstract: The capability of processing rapid fluctuations in the temporal envelope of sound declines with age and this contributes to older adults' difficulties in understanding speech. Although, changes in central auditory processing during aging have been proposed as cause for communication deficits, an open question remains which stage of processing is mostly affected by age related changes. We investigated auditory temporal resolution in young, middle-aged, and older listeners with neuromagnetic evoked responses to gap stimuli with different leading marker and gap durations. Signal components specific for processing the physical details of sound stimuli as well as the auditory objects as a whole were derived from the evoked activity and served as biological markers for temporal processing at different cortical levels. Early oscillatory 40-Hz responses were elicited by the onsets of leading and lagging markers and indicated central registration of the gap with similar amplitude in all three age groups. High-gamma responses were predominantly related to the duration of no-gap stimuli or to the duration of gaps when present, and decreased in amplitude and phase locking with increasing age. Correspondingly, low-frequency activity around 200 ms and later was reduced in middle aged and older participants. High-gamma band, and long-latency low-frequency responses were interpreted as reflecting higher order processes related to the grouping of sound items into auditory objects and updating of memory for these objects. The observed effects indicate that age-related changes in auditory acuity have more to do with higher-order brain functions than previously thought.
Creating, Handling and Implementing E-learning Courses Using the Open Source Tools OLAT and eLML at the University of Zurich
Joel Fisler,Franziska Schneider
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract:
The Long-Term Impact of Physical and Emotional Trauma: The Station Nightclub Fire
Jeffrey C. Schneider, Nhi-Ha T. Trinh, Elizabeth Selleck, Felipe Fregni, Sara S. Salles, Colleen M. Ryan, Joel Stein
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047339
Abstract: Background Survivors of physical and emotional trauma experience enduring occupational, psychological and quality of life impairments. Examining survivors from a large fire provides a unique opportunity to distinguish the impact of physical and emotional trauma on long-term outcomes. The objective is to detail the multi-dimensional long-term effects of a large fire on its survivor population and assess differences in outcomes between survivors with and without physical injury. Methods and Findings This is a survey-based cross-sectional study of survivors of The Station fire on February 20, 2003. The relationships between functional outcomes and physical injury were evaluated with multivariate regression models adjusted for pre-injury characteristics and post-injury outcomes. Outcome measures include quality of life (Burn Specific Health Scale–Brief), employment (time off work), post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact of Event Scale–Revised) and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). 104 fire survivors completed the survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. Although depression and quality of life were associated with burn injury in univariate analyses (p<0.05), adjusted analyses showed no significant relationship between burn injury and these outcomes (p = 0.91; p = .51). Post-traumatic stress symptoms were not associated with burn injury in the univariate (p = 0.13) or adjusted analyses (p = 0.79). Time off work was the only outcome in which physical injury remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.03). Conclusions Survivors of this large fire experienced significant life disruption, including occupational, psychological and quality of life sequelae. The findings suggest that quality of life, depression and post-traumatic stress outcomes are related to emotional trauma, not physical injury. However, physical injury is correlated with employment outcomes. The long-term impact of this traumatic event underscores the importance of longitudinal and mental health care for trauma survivors, with attention to those with and without physical injuries.
Differential Requirement for Utrophin in the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Correction of Muscle versus Fat in Muscular Dystrophy Mice
Amanda J. Beck,Joseph M. Vitale,Qingshi Zhao,Joel S. Schneider,Corey Chang,Aneela Altaf,Jennifer Michaels,Mantu Bhaumik,Robert Grange,Diego Fraidenraich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020065
Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable degenerative muscle disorder. We injected WT mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into mdx and mdx:utrophin mutant blastocysts, which are predisposed to develop DMD with an increasing degree of severity (mdx <<< mdx:utrophin). In mdx chimeras, iPSC-dystrophin was supplied to the muscle sarcolemma to effect corrections at morphological and functional levels. Dystrobrevin was observed in dystrophin-positive and, at a lesser extent, utrophin-positive areas. In the mdx:utrophin mutant chimeras, although iPSC-dystrophin was also supplied to the muscle sarcolemma, mice still displayed poor skeletal muscle histopathology, and negligible levels of dystrobrevin in dystrophin- and utrophin-negative areas. Not only dystrophin-expressing tissues are affected by iPSCs. Mdx and mdx:utrophin mice have reduced fat/body weight ratio, but iPSC injection normalized this parameter in both mdx and mdx:utrophin chimeras, despite the fact that utrophin was compromised in the mdx:utrophin chimeric fat. The results suggest that the presence of utrophin is required for the iPSC-corrections in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the results highlight a potential (utrophin-independent) non-cell autonomous role for iPSC-dystrophin in the corrections of non-muscle tissue like fat, which is intimately related to the muscle.
The BOSS Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS). I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of Lens Galaxies at redshift ~ 0.5
Joel R. Brownstein,Adam S. Bolton,David J. Schlegel,Daniel J. Eisenstein,Christopher S. Kochanek,Natalia Connolly,Claudia Maraston,Parul Pandey,Stella Seitz,David A. Wake,W. Michael Wood-Vasey,Jon Brinkmann,Donald P. Schneider,Benjamin A. Weaver
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/1/41
Abstract: We present a catalog of 25 definite and 11 probable strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens systems with redshifts 0.4 \lesssim z \lesssim 0.7, discovered spectroscopically by the presence of higher redshift emission-lines within the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of luminous galaxies, and confirmed with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of 44 candidates. Our survey extends the methodology of the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS: Bolton et al. 2006; 2008) to higher redshift. We describe the details of the BOSS spectroscopic candidate detections, our HST Adanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) image processing and analysis methods, and our strong gravitational lens modeling procedure. We report BOSS spectroscopic parameters and ACS photometric parameters for all candidates, and mass-distribution parameters for the best-fit singular isothermal ellipsoid models of definite lenses. Our sample to date was selected using only the first six months of BOSS survey-quality spectroscopic data. The full 5-year BOSS database should produce a sample of several hundred strong galaxy-galaxy lenses and in combination with SLACS lenses at lower redshift, strongly constrain the redshift evolution of the structure of elliptical, bulge-dominated galaxies as a function of luminosity, stellar mass, and rest-frame color, thereby providing a powerful test for competing theories of galaxy formation and evolution.
Health Behaviour and Health Assessment: Evidence from German Microdata
Brit S. Schneider,Udo Schneider
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/135630
Abstract: The importance of the individual’s health behaviour for the health production process is beyond controversy. Health relevant behaviour can be viewed as a key variable in the health production process. Changes in the behaviour may influence individual’s assessment of health. Following this idea, we use German microdata to identify determinants of smoking, drinking, and obesity and their impact on health. Our empirical approach allows for the simultaneity of behaviours and self-reported health. In addition, we account for endogeneity of health behaviours and take aspects of reporting heterogeneity of self-reported health into account. We find that health behaviour is directly related to the socioeconomic status and observe gender-specific differences in the determinants of drinking, smoking, and heavy body weight in particular. The influence on health is also gender specific. While we do not find any impact of smoking, overweight is relevant only for males and no clear pattern for alcohol exists.
Health Behaviour and Health Assessment: Evidence from German Microdata
Brit S. Schneider,Udo Schneider
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/135630
Abstract: The importance of the individual’s health behaviour for the health production process is beyond controversy. Health relevant behaviour can be viewed as a key variable in the health production process. Changes in the behaviour may influence individual’s assessment of health. Following this idea, we use German microdata to identify determinants of smoking, drinking, and obesity and their impact on health. Our empirical approach allows for the simultaneity of behaviours and self-reported health. In addition, we account for endogeneity of health behaviours and take aspects of reporting heterogeneity of self-reported health into account. We find that health behaviour is directly related to the socioeconomic status and observe gender-specific differences in the determinants of drinking, smoking, and heavy body weight in particular. The influence on health is also gender specific. While we do not find any impact of smoking, overweight is relevant only for males and no clear pattern for alcohol exists. 1. Introduction Unhealthy behaviours like smoking, alcohol abuse, malnutrition, or lack of exercise are known causes of chronic health conditions [1]. Diseases like cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, or several types of cancer are directly linked with tobacco consumption, going along with higher mortality [2]. While the health effects of smoking are almost linked to long-term consumption, alcohol abuse also is related to acute consequences. Besides chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, or neuropsychiatric health disorders, drinking goes along with an increased risk of injury or accidents [3]. High-calorie intake, and lack of exercise are main reasons for high body weight and obesity1 causing coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer as well as osteoarthritis [4]. Sturm [5] estimates that obesity promotes chronic health conditions in the same way as 20 years’ aging does. Taking the high number of chronic diseases as well as the risk of acute consequences of adverse health behaviour into account, these can be directly related to high economic costs due to hospital stays, medical and pharmaceutical consumption. Moreover, as this often goes along with inability to work, indirect economic costs like foregone earnings because of lost productivity also have to be calculated. Beginning with the annual costs of smoking, estimations for the United States show that annual economic costs attributable to smoking were $ 157.7 billion, where $ 75.5 billion are paid for direct medical care
The SDSS-III BOSS quasar lens survey: discovery of thirteen gravitationally lensed quasars
Anupreeta More,Masamune Oguri,Issha Kayo,Joel Zinn,Michael A. Strauss,Basilio X. Santiago,Ana M. Mosquera,Naohisa Inada,Christopher S. Kochanek,Cristian E. Rusu,Joel R. Brownstein,Luiz N. da Costa,Jean-Paul Kneib,Marcio A. G. Maia,Robert M. Quimby,Donald P. Schneider,Alina Streblyanska,Donald G. York
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report the discovery of 13 confirmed two-image quasar lenses from a systematic search for gravitationally lensed quasars in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We adopted a methodology similar to that used in the SDSS Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). In addition to the confirmed lenses, we report 11 quasar pairs with small angular separations ($\lesssim$2") confirmed from our spectroscopy, which are either projected pairs, physical binaries, or possibly quasar lens systems whose lens galaxies have not yet been detected. The newly discovered quasar lens system, SDSS J1452+4224 at zs$\approx$4.8 is one of the highest redshift multiply imaged quasars found to date. Furthermore, we have over 50 good lens candidates yet to be followed up. Owing to the heterogeneous selection of BOSS quasars, the lens sample presented here does not have a well-defined selection function.
How and Why Does a Fly Turn Its Immune System Off?
David S. Schneider
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050247
Abstract:
Tracing Personalized Health Curves during Infections
David S. Schneider
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001158
Abstract: It is difficult to describe host–microbe interactions in a manner that deals well with both pathogens and mutualists. Perhaps a way can be found using an ecological definition of tolerance, where tolerance is defined as the dose response curve of health versus parasite load. To plot tolerance, individual infections are summarized by reporting the maximum parasite load and the minimum health for a population of infected individuals and the slope of the resulting curve defines the tolerance of the population. We can borrow this method of plotting health versus microbe load in a population and make it apply to individuals; instead of plotting just one point that summarizes an infection in an individual, we can plot the values at many time points over the course of an infection for one individual. This produces curves that trace the course of an infection through phase space rather than over a more typical timeline. These curves highlight relationships like recovery and point out bifurcations that are difficult to visualize with standard plotting techniques. Only nine archetypical curves are needed to describe most pathogenic and mutualistic host–microbe interactions. The technique holds promise as both a qualitative and quantitative approach to dissect host–microbe interactions of all kinds.
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